General Studies - PT - 2018, Set- A Explanation


                   UPSC IAS Prelims 2018                              SET-A     Explanation
1. The Swatantra Party was an Indian liberal-conservative political party that existed from 1959 to 1974. It was founded by C. Rajagopalachari 
India got its first Leader of the Opposition in 1969 in the Fourth Lok Sabha a good 17 years after the first general election held in 1952. Dr.Ram Subhag Singh was appointed LOP by the Speaker following the split in the Congress Party.
To become leader of opposition, a political party needs atleast 10% strength of the house. LS 545/10=55
2. The leaves of several plants get modified into different forms based on the plant’s purpose and environment. In most xerophytes plants like Opuntia, the leaves are reduced to spines and the stem is modified into storage parts which store water for the plants.
3. Rajasthan had highest percentage of agricultural households (78.4 percent) among its rural households and Kerala had the least percentage share of agricultural households (27.3 percent) in its rural households.
June 2013, about 45 percentout of the total agricultural households in the country belonged to Other Backward Classes (OBC). About 16 percent of agricultural households were from Scheduled Castes (SC) and 13 percent were from Scheduled Tribes (ST).
4.  The National Green Tribunal has been established in 2010 under the National Green Tribunal Act 2010. The Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), statutory organisation, was constituted in September, 1974 under the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.
NGT works  for effective and expeditious disposal of cases relating to environmental protection and conservation of forests and other natural resources including enforcement of any legal right relating to environment and giving relief and compensation for damages.
CPCB functions:  (i) to promote cleanliness of streams and wells in different areas of the States by prevention, control and abatement of water pollution, and (ii) to improve the quality of air and to prevent, control or abate air pollution in the country.
5. It was the First Amendment in 1951 along with Article 31-B that marked the addition of the Ninth Schedule to the Constitution. This was intended to protect land reform laws from being challenged in courts on the grounds of violation of fundamental rights.
A nine-judge constitution bench of te SC in 2007 held that laws placed in the Ninth Schedule were open to judicial scrutiny implying that  such laws could not be entitled to blanket protection.
6. Merchant Discount Rate (MDR) is a fee charged from a merchant by a bank for accepting payments from customers through credit and debit cards in their establishments. MDR compensates the card issuing bank, the lender which puts the PoS terminal and payment gateways such as Mastercard or Visa for their services
7. The Indo-US civil nuclear deal 2008 made India eligible to receive advanced nuclear technologies that could be used to enrich uranium and/or reprocess plutonium. This has helped India a lot. However, such access is restricted to American technologies. Membership to the NSG will essentially increase India's access to state-of-the-art technology from the other 47 members of the Group, as well.
8. The Finance Bill, 2016 proposes equalization levy at the rate of 6% of the amount of consideration for specified services received or receivable by a non-resident, from a resident in India who carries out business or profession, or from a non-resident having a permanent establishment in India, where the aggregate amount of consideration received in a year exceeds one lakh rupees. The proposed levy will have no direct impact on consumers as it is applicable only to business to business transaction.
9, The combined debt-to-GDP ratio of the centre and states should be brought down to 60 per cent by 2023 (comprising of 40 per cent for the Centre and 20% for states) as against the existing 49.4 per cent, and 21per cent respectively.
10. According to ICRA, India occupies a prominent position in the world oilseeds industry with contribution of around 10% in worldwide production. But the demand of edible oils (extracted from oilseeds in addition to palm oil) is significantly higher than the domestic production, leading to dependence on imports (60% of requirement). (ToI Sep 2017).
Aimed at safeguarding the interests of the domestic edible oil crushing industry and oilseed farmers in India, the Ministry of Finance in March 2018 increased the import duty on refined and crude palm oil to the highest levels in recent years. 
11. Lala Lajpat Rai was born in the Ferozepore district of the Punjab. Between 1896 and 1898 he published popular biographies of Mazzini, Garibaldi, Shivaji, and Swami Dayananda.
Rai lived in the United States from 1914 until 1920. He founded the Indian Home Rule League in New York City and published several important volumes on the Indian problem. Soon after his return to India he was elected president of the Calcutta session of the Congress. Lajpat Rai moved a resolution in the Central Legislative Assembly in February 1928 against Simon Commission, He died on 17th November 1928 as a result of the lathi blows. 
12. Calcutta High Court in December 2016 ruled that Aadhaar Card is not a proof of citizenship and stated that “Aadhaar Card by itself shall not confer any right of or be proof of citizenship or domicile.
About 8.1 million Aadhaar numbers have reportedly been deactivated by the Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI).
13. In an attempt to convert Central Asia’s deserts into cotton plantations, Soviet government programs established irrigation systems that diverted large parts of the flow of both rivers. As a result, the water level in the Aral Sea dropped by around 20 cm per year in the 1970s, By 2007, the Aral Sea had shrunk to 10% of its former surface area.
The Black Sea has lost more than a third of its habitable volume.
Lake Baikal (Russia) has undergone dramatic warming and ecosystem changes that could disrupt its biological systems.
14. The World Justice Project Rule of Law Index measures how the rule of law is experienced and perceived by the general public across the globe. The World Justice Project's definition of the rule of law is comprised of the following four universal principles: Accountability, Just Laws, Open Government, and Accessible & Impartial Dispute Resolution.
15. National Payments Corporation of India (NPCI) is an umbrella organization for all retail payments system in India. The National Financial Switch is the largest interconnected network of automated Teller Machines (ATMs) in India. 
16. Capital adequacy ratio (CAR) is a specialized ratio used by banks to determine the adequacy of their capital keeping in view their risk exposures. Banking regulators require a minimum capital adequacy ratio so as to provide the banks with a cushion to absorb losses before they become insolvent. This improves stability in financial markets and protects deposit-holders. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision of the Bank of International Settlements develops rules related to capital adequacy.
17. Application Programming Interface or API, a software programme, acts as a bridge between disparate applications. It performs the intended function when a set of instructions are provided through a user interface (UI). The front-end of UI is usually a website or mobile application.
18. The UN said that 20 million people in 4 countries facing starvation, famine. It urged an immediate injection of at least 4.4 billion dollar fund for Yemen, South Sudan, Somalia and northeast Nigeria.
19. The despatch (1854) proposed the system of grant- in-aid for the Indian educational institutions in order to encourage the private enterprise for expansion of education among Indians.
 The despatch recommended for the establishment of universities in the presidency towns, viz. Calcutta, Bombay and Madras.
The medium of instruction of education in India would be English.  Woodsuggested that primary schools must adopt vernacular languages, high schools must adopt Anglo vernacular language and on college level English medium for education. 
20. A Committee on Subordinate Legislation scrutinizes and reports to the Council whether the powers to make rules, regulations, bye-laws, schemes or other statutory instruments conferred by the Constitution or delegated by Parliament have been properly exercised within such conferment or delegation.
21. Section 23 1) Any person possessing such minimum qualifications, as laid down by an academic authority, authorized by the Central Government, by notification, shall be eligible for appointment as a teacher.
22.  Chapchar Kut is a festival of Mizoram, India. It is celebrated during March after completion of their most arduous task of Jhum operation.
Thang Ta - is an ancient Manipuri Martial Art developed from the war environment of Manipur.
23. The Centre had passed the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 by repealing the Prevention of Food Adulteration Act, 1954
 FSSAI was established under the Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006 operates under aegis of Union Ministry of Health & Family Welfare.
Food Safety and Standards Authority of India (FSSAI) is an autonomous bodyThe FSSAI consists of a chairperson & 22 members. The FSSAI is responsible for setting standards for food so that there is one body to deal with and no confusion in the minds of consumers, traders, 

24. The two-state solution refers to a solution of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict which calls for "two states for two groups of people." The two-state solution envisages an independent State of Palestine alongside the State of Israel, west of the Jordan River. The boundary between the two states is still subject to dispute and negotiation, with Palestinian and Arab leadership insisting on the "1967 borders", which is not accepted by Israel.
25. Upto 75 per cent of the rural population and upto 50 per cent of the urban population will have uniform entitlement of 5 kg foodgrains per month at highly subsidized prices of Rs. 3, Rs. 2, Rs. 1 per kg. for rice, wheat, coarse grains respectively
26. In  1999  India in compliance with its obligation under TRIPS Agreement enacted the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999. This act seeks to provide for registration and better protection GIs relating to goods.
27. Only six mines were auctioned in 2015-16, the states auctioned 15 mines in 2016-17. As many as 95 non-coal mineral blocks may be auctioned in 2018-19,
28. Unified Payment Interface (UPI) allows all bank account holders to pay money from their smartphones, both online and offline, without the need to enter credit card details, IFSC code, or net banking userID/passwords.

All the users need to do is create a Virtual Payment Address (VPA) of their choice, which will act as their financial address, and link it to their bank account.

Now in an effort to boost the adoption of Unified Payments Interface (UPI) as a tool for digital transactions, Indian Government has recently launched a new app called, the Bharat Interface for Money (BHIM) app.
BHIM app has three factors of authentication
29. longitude  of Delhi - 77.1025° E
longitude  of Bengaluru -  77.5946° E
30. India ratify the core ILO Conventions No. on 138 and 182 on Child Labour in 2017.  Conventions 138 is regarding admission of age to employment and Convention 182 is regarding worst forms of Child Labour.
31. 110(1) - a Bill is deemed to be a Money Bill (a -g)
(a)  the imposition, abolition, remission, alteration or regulation of any tax;
(b)  the regulation of the borrowing of money or the giving of any guarantee by the Government of India, or the amendment of the law with respect to any financial obligations undertaken or to be undertaken by the Government of India;
(f)    the receipt of money on account of the Consolidated Fund of India or the public account of India or the custody or issue of such money or the audit of the accounts of the Union or of a State;
32. For the MLA, the number of vote is decided by the total population of the state divided by the number of elected members to the legislative assembly, further divided by 1000. The value of the vote of an MP is decided by dividing the total value of votes of all MLAs of the whole country, divided by the total number of elected MPs in Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha.
33. Under the Additional Protocol, the IAEA is granted expanded rights of access to information and locations in the States. For States with a CSA, the Additional Protocol aims to fill the gaps in the information reported under a CSA. By enabling the IAEA to obtain a much fuller picture of such States’ nuclear programmes, plans, nuclear material holdings and trade, 
In 2006, New Delhi agreed to place 14 thermal power reactors under IAEA monitoring, leaving another eight unsafeguarded
34. ASEAN Members (10) : Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, Myanmar,  
Cambodia, Laos, Brunei.
35.  The concept of Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA) was originally developed by FAO and officially presented and at the Hague Conference on Agriculture, Food Security and Climate Change in 2010.
GACSA is an inclusive, voluntary and action-oriented multi-stakeholder platform on Climate-Smart Agriculture (CSA)
36. Digital India aims to provide the much needed thrust to the nine pillars of growth areas, namely Broadband Highways, Universal Access to Mobile Connectivity, Public Internet Access Programme, e-Governance: Reforming Government through Technology, e-Kranti - Electronic Delivery of Services, Information for All, Electronics Manufacturing, IT for Jobs and Early Harvest Programmes. 
37. Kirkuk and Mosul are city in Iraq.
38. Residuary powers were given to the Viceroy-in-council
39. Article 179: Vacation and resignation of, and removal from, the offices of Speaker and Deputy Speaker.
Provided further that, whenever the Assembly is dissolved, the Speaker shall not vacate his office until immediately before the first meeting of the Assembly after the dissolution.
40. Some philosophers like John Locke opine that law creates a condition, a congenial atmosphere for the enjoyment of liberty. But the contrary view is held by a galaxy philosophers and eminent scholars like Hobbes, Spencer, and Prof. A.V. Dicey etc. To Prof. A.V. Dicey “the more there is one the less there is the other”.
41.Aas per Article 361(2)  -  No criminal proceedings whatsoever shall be instituted or continued against the President, or the Governor of a State, in any court during his term of office.
Article 158 (4) The emoluments and allowances of the Governor shall not be diminished during his term of office.
42. Bani Thani is an Indian miniature painting painted by Nihâl Chand from the Marwar school of Kishangarh. It portrays a woman who is elegant and graceful. Bani Thani, was a singer and poet in Kishangarh in the time of king Sawant Singh (1748–1764). She has been compared to the Mona Lisa
43. THAAD is a transportable system that intercepts ballistic missiles inside or outside the atmosphere during their final, or terminal, phase of flight. THAAD uses a one-stage hit-to-kill interceptor to destroy incoming ballistic missile targets. 
44. Tyagaraja Kritis ( Telugu) - Tyagarajacomposed thousands of devotional compositions, most of them in praise of Lord Rama; His compositions in vinta ragas created a stir in his day
Kakarla Tyagabrahmam (4 May 1767 – 6 January 1847) or Saint Tyagaraja
Taḷḷapāka Annamācārya (or Annamayya) (Telugu)  22 May 1408 – 4 April 1503) was a 15th-century Hindu saint and is the earliest known Indian musician to compose songs called sankirtanas in praise of the god Venkateswara, a form of Vishnu.
45. Common ingredients of Rule of Law are: a government bound by and ruled by law,
equality before the law, the establishment of law and order; the efficient and predictable application of justice; and the protection of human rights.
46. Legal tender is any official medium of payment recognized by law that can be used to extinguish a public or private debt, or meet a financial obligation.

47. Opportunity cost is transferred from the consumers of the product to the government (it may make hospitals, schools, etc.). An opportunity cost is a hypothetical cost incurred by selecting one alternative over the next best available alternative. 
48. According to Amartya Sen, development is about creating freedom for people and removing obstacles to greater freedom. Greater freedom enables people to choose their own destiny. Obstacles to freedom, and hence to development, include poverty, lack of economic opportunities, corruption, poor governance, lack of education and lack of health.
49. According to Harbison, the human capital formation indicates, “the process of acquiring and increasing the number of persons who have the skills, education and experience which are critical for the economic and the political development of the country.
50. The concept of capital output ratio expresses the relationship between the value of capital invested and the value of output. Capital output ratio is the amount of capital needed to produce one unit of output. Lower capital output ratio shows productivity of capital and technological progress.
51. The government declared the Santhal concen­tration area as the Santhal Pargana. It was due to the Santhal insurrection that the British government recognised the tribal status of the Santhals. Now they came under uniform administra­tion.
52. The commercialization of Indian Agriculture was done primarily to feed the British industries that it was taken up and achieved only in cases-of those agricultural products which were either needed by the British industries or could fetch cash commercial gain to the British in the European or American market.
53. 356. Provisions in case of failure of constitutional machinery in State.
(b) declare that the powers of the Legislature of the State shall be exercisable by or under the authority of Parliament;
54. Sujani (also known as Sujini) is a form of embroidery originating from the Bhusura village of Bihar in India.
Uppada Jamdani Sari is a silk sari style woven in Uppada of East Godavari district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It was registered as one of the geographical indication from Andhra Pradesh 
55. GPS is extremely relevant today and used in numerous industries for preparing accurate surveys and maps, taking precise time measurements, tracking position or location, and navigating. Other industries that use GPS include: agriculture, autonomous vehicles, sales and services, military, mobile communications, security, drones, and fishing. The control of power grids by allowing well synchronized hand-off switching.
56. A Government Security (G-Sec) is a tradeable instrument issued by the Central Government or the State Governments. It acknowledges the Government’s debt obligation. Such securities are short term (usually called treasury bills, with original maturities of less than one year) or long term (usually called Government bonds or dated securities with original maturity of one year or more). In India, the Central Government issues both, treasury bills and bonds or dated securities while the State Governments issue only bonds or dated securities, which are called the State Development Loans (SDLs).
Sections 20, 21, 21A, 17(11), 17(5) of the RBI Act define the role of the Bank in managing public debt of the Central and State Governments.
Treasury Bills are issued only by the central government in India. The State governments do not issue any treasury bills.  T-Bills are issued on discount to face value, while the holder gets the face value on maturity. 
57. A geomagnetic reversal is a change in a planet'smagnetic field such that the positions of magneticnorth and magnetic south are interchanged, while geographic north and geographic south remain the same.
 Most scientists believe that for half of Earth's 4.6-billion-year history, the atmosphere contained almost no oxygen. Cyanobacteria or blue-green algae became the first microbes to produce oxygen by photosynthesis, perhaps as long ago as 3.5 billion years ago and certainly by 2.7 billion years ago. 
58. Both WannaCry and the recent Petya variant (Both are ransomware hit in 2017) targeted systems running the Windows OS only. EternalBlue is the name given to a software vulnerability in Microsoft's Windows operating system. 
59. Conservation Agriculture includes-
- minimal soil disturbance since the harvest of the previous crop.
A permanent soil cover  for optimal growth and development of soil organisms, including plant roots.
The rotation of crops 
CA provides small-scale farmers with diversification opportunities
CA helps fight climate change 
CA helps lower farm power and reduces labour
Crop  residues  are  retained  to  the  soil  to  achieve permanent  soil cover which in-turn gives benefits to the farmer. 
60. A “biological annihilation” of wildlife in recent decades means a sixth mass extinction in Earth’s history is under way and is more severe than previously feared, according to research. Natural disasters have triggered at least five mass extinctions in the past 500 million years, each of which wiped out between 50 and 90 percent of all species on the planet. The most recent occurred about 65 million years ago, when an asteroid ended the reign of dinosaurs and opened new doors for mammals.
61. The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System (IRNSS) is an independent satellite based regional system developed indigenously by India on par with US-based GPS, Russia’s Glonass and Galileo developed by Europe. It was renamed “Navic” (Navigation with Indian Constellation).
The NAVIC system is constellation of seven satellites, (namely IRNSS-1I, 1B, 1C, 1D, 1E, 1F and 1G) of which three are geostationary and four are non-geostationary ( sun-synchronous orbit).
NavIC system covers the entire Indian mainland and 1,500 km beyond the country’s borders. In the west, the system will reach eastern parts of Arabian peninsula and reach some parts of China in the east. In the south, NavIC signals will reach up till Malaysia. The US based GPS with its 24 satellites in a constellation covers the entire world.
62. A very surprising corollary of the above is that light paths are bent by gravitational forces! I
Until 1931, physicist Albert Einstein believed that the universe was static.. However, in an April 1931 report to the Prussian Academy of Sciences, Einstein finally adopted a model of an expanding universe.
Einstein looked at space and time and saw a single dynamic stage — spacetime — on which matter and energy strutted, generating sound and fury, signifying gravity.
63. GM Mustard (DMH-11)  is a Genetically Modified (GM) mustard hybrid. Hybrids are normally obtained by crossing 2 genetically diverse plants from the same species. The team has used a “Barnase” gene isolated from a soil bacterium called Bacillus amyloliquefaciens.
This is generally a self pollinating plant (because its flowers contain both the female (pistil) and male (stamen) reproductive organs) and is better suited to hybridization than current methods.
Mustard DMH-11, a transgenic crop developed by Centre for Genetic Manipulation of Crop Plants at Delhi University
 GM mustard hybrid, it is claimed, gives 25-30% more yield than the best varieties such as 'Varuna'  
64. The Belle II experiment is a particle physics experiment designed to study the properties of B mesons (heavy particles containing a bottom quark) and is currently being commissioned in, Japan. The Belle II detector was "rolled in" (moved into the collision point) in April 2017.
Blockchain is a digitized, decentralized, public ledger of all cryptocurrency transactions. A few main Blockchain technology are- Increased Capacity, Better Security, Immutability , and Faster Settlement.
A bacterial CRISPR-associated protein-9 nuclease (Cas9) Is a Genome editing tool. 
65. The carbon fertilization is in principle simple: the larger amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that has resulted from rising anthropogenic emissions should help the growth of plants, which use carbon dioxide during photosynthesis. The effect ought to increase crop yields – and that is some good news for farmers, amid the overwhelmingly gloomy forecasts for other aspects of climate change. 
66. Traffic that is routed within a single network autonomous systems (AS)  is referred to as internal BGP  (Border Gateway Protocol).
The Internet of Things (IoT) is the network of physical devices, vehicles, home appliances and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors, actuators, and connectivity which enables these things to connect and exchange data,
Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal set (or communications protocol) of digital message formats and rules for exchanging messages between computers across a single network or a series of interconnected networks, using the Internet Protocol Suite (often referred to as TCP/IP). 
A virtual private network (VPN) is a private network that is built over a public infrastructure. Security mechanisms, such as encryption, allow VPN users to securely access a network from different locations via a public telecommunications network, most frequently the Internet. 
67. The US is the third largest global producer of silicon with close to 326,000 tons annually. Just like the other countries, silicon is used in transport, construction and technology sectors in the US.
Electricity tariffs discovered in the latest reverse auctions conducted by the state-runSolar Energy Corporation of India (SECI) 
68. The company settled down to a trade in cotton and silk piece goods, indigo, and saltpeter.
 69. One very important outcome of the movement was the enact­ment of Champaran Agrarian Act assented by Governor General of India on 1st May, 1918.
 70. The Hind Mazdoor Sabha (HMS) is a National Trade Union Centre in India. It was founded in Hawrah in December1948 by Socialist, Fonward Bloc follower and independent unionists. Its founders included Basawan Singh (Sinha), Ashok Mehta, R.S. Ruikar, Mani Benkara, Shibnath Benerajee, R.K. Khedgikar, T.S. Ramanujam, VS. Mathur, G.G. Mehta.
 71. Sthānakavāsī is a sect of Śvētāmbara Jainism founded by a merchant named Lavaji in 1653 AD
 72. Only red sandstone was used in making Bara Imambara and Rumi Darwaza at Lucknow
 73. Jean-Baptiste Tavernier (1605 – 1689) was a 17th-century French gem merchant and traveler.
 74. According to Buddhist tradition, Maitreya is a bodhisattva who will appear on Earth in the future, achieve complete enlightenment, and teach the pure dharma. According to scriptures, Maitreya will be a successor to the present Buddha, Gautama Buddha (also known as Śākyamuni Buddha).
 75. It was framed by Lord Wellesley, the Governor-General of India from 1798 to 1805. 
An Indian ruler entering into Subsidiary Alliance with the British had to dissolve his own armed forces and accept British forces in his territory. He also had to pay for the British army’s maintenance. If he failed to make the payment, a portion of his territory would be taken away and ceded to the British.
 76. Charter Act of 1813 - The company was also to take up a greater role in the education of the Indians under them. It was to set aside Rs.1 Lakh for this purpose.
The General Committee of Public Instruction had two groups viz. Orientalists and Anglicists on the issue of the Development of Education of India.
 77. Kodaikanal Lake, also known as Kodai Lake is a manmade lake located in the Kodaikanal city in Dindigul district in Tamil Nadu, The lake is said to be Kodaikanal's most popular geographic landmark and tourist attraction.
Kolleru Lake is one of the largest freshwater lakes in India located in state of Andhra Pradesh and forms the largest shallow freshwater[3] lake in Asia,
Nainital Lake, a natural freshwater body, situated amidst the township of Nainital in Uttarakhand State of India, tectonic in origin, is kidney shaped or crescent shaped and has an outfall at the southeastern end.
Renuka lake is in the Sirmaur district of Himachal Pradesh in India and it is 672 m above the sea level. It is the largest lake in Himachal Pradesh,
 78. This is a flagship scheme for skill training of youth to be implemented by the new Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship through the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC). 
79. In September 1915, Annie launched the Home Rule League, modeling demands for India on Irish models. In the next year 1916, Tilak also reorganized his supporters. When the war was near closing, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Annie Besant, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, Joseph Baptista, G. S. Khaparde, Sir S. Subramania Iyer, all came together under the umbrella of the All India Home Rule League. The All India Home league ended in 1920, when it elected Mahatma Gandhi as its President, when within a year it merged into the Indian National Congress. 
80. The Arya samaj was founded by  Dayananda Saraswati on 7 April 1875.
Nil Darpan was written by Dinabandhu Mitra in 1858–1859.
Anandamath is a Bengali fiction, written by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay and published in 1882. 
Satyendranath was selected for the Indian Civil Service in June, 1863.
81. The gravest consequence of heavy sand mining in riverbeds is environment and ecology loss. From forcing the river to change its course, to affecting the groundwater tables and adversely impacting the habitat of micro-organisms, the ramifications of illegal sand mining are many. Sand is important for ground water recharge, on a riverbed it acts as a link between the flowing river and the water table and is part of the aquifer.
We have seen the impact of tampering with the rivers and their resources in the recent Uttarakhand floods. Unplanned and rampant removal of sand from riverbeds also amounts to destroying the habitat of biodiversity. (The Hindu)
82. Most soil organic matter originates from plant tissue. Plant residues contain 60-90 percent moisture. The remaining dry matter consists of carbon (C), oxygen, hydrogen (H) and small amounts of sulphur (S), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg).
83. PAGE aims to contribute to the transformation of national economic structures in developing countries with the ultimate intention to achieve environmental sustainability, decent job creation, reduced poverty, and improved human well-being.
84. 3D Printing applications cover various sectors i.e. Architecture and Construction,  Maritime Industry, Healthcare and Medical, Chemical Industry, Mechanics,  Food Industry, Education, Aeronautics and Space, High Tech, Retail, Energy, Textile and Fashion, etc.
85. The Barren Island, about 140 km from Port Blair in Lesser Andaman.
In 1991, it spewed so massively that smoke billowed out for about six months. Ever since, there have been eruptions every two-three years, the last in February 2016. 
86. Prosopis juliflora, once touted as a saviour of the drought-prone areas in the southern districts of Tamil Nadu, has now become a threat to the environmental system. Prosopis was introduced in India during the 1870s to meet the fuel wood demand. (The Hindu) 
87. Coral reefs are large underwater structures composed of the skeletons of coral, which are marine invertebrate animals.
The biggest coral reefs are found in the clear, shallow ocean waters of the tropics and subtropics where they grow quickly. The largest of these coral reef systems — the Great Barrier Reef of Australia — is more than 1,500 miles (2,400 km) in length. 
88. Climate Neutral Now is an initiative launched by the UN Climate Change in 2015, aiming at encouraging and supporting all levels of society to take climate action to achieve a climate neutral world by mid-century, as enshrined in the Paris Agreement adopted the same year.
To avoid the worst effects of climate change, science tells us that we must limit global temperature rise to less than 2 degrees Celsius, which is also the central goal of the Paris Agreement. To achieve this objective, relying solely on governmental action will not be sufficient.
89. Jonathan Duncan in 1791 started the Sanskrit College at Benares for the study of Hindu law and Philosophy.
In 1781, Warren Hastings founded the Calcutta Madarasa. 
Lord Wellesley, then Governor-General established Fort William College, an academy and learning center of Oriental studies.  
90. crimea is in Russia. Oromia   is in Ethiopia. 
91. In 1957 the CPI defeated Congress in legislative assembly elections in the southernstate of Kerala and, under Chief Minister E.M.S. Namboodiripad, formed the firstnon-Congress government in independent India.
The Imperial Bank of India was renamed on 30 April 1955 to the State Bank of India.
In 1953, the Government of India passed the Air Corporations Act and purchased a majority stake in the carrier from Tata Sonsthough its founder J. R. D. Tata
On December 19, 1961, Goa officially became part of India.
92. The unanimous judgment by the Supreme Court of India (SCI) in Justice K.S. Puttaswamy vs Union of India is a resounding victory for privacy. The ruling is the outcome of a petition challenging the constitutional validity of the Indian biometric identity scheme Aadhaar. The judgment's ringing endorsement of the right to privacy as a fundamental right marks a watershed moment in the constitutional history of India.
93. 25 commodities are currently covered under MSP. They are as follows.
- Cereals (7) - paddy, wheat, barley, jowar, bajra, maize and ragi
- Pulses (5) - gram, arhar/tur, moong, urad and lentil
-Oilseeds (8) - groundnut, rapeseed/mustard, toria, soyabean, sunflower seed, sesamum, safflower seed and nigerseed
- Raw cotton
- Raw jute
- Sugarcane (Fair and remunerative price)
-Virginia flu cured (VFC) tobacco
94. Pakhui Wildlife Sanctuary in the East Kameng District of Arunachal Pradesh. It was declared a sanctuary in 1977. It has been declared a tiger reserve in 2002.
95. PSLV is designed mainly to deliver the “earth-observation” or “remote-sensing” The remote sensing satellites orbit the earth from pole-to-pole (at about 98 deg orbital-plane inclination). An orbit is called sun-synchronous when the angle between the line joining the centre of the Earth and the satellite and the Sun is constant throughout the orbit. PSLV is a four-staged launch vehicle with first and third stage using solid rocket motors and second and fourth stages using liquid rocket engines.
The GSLV is designed mainly to deliver the communication-satellites to the highly elliptical (typically 250 x 36000 Km) Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). The satellite in GTO is further raised to its final destination, viz., Geo-synchronous Earth orbit (GEO) of about 36000 Km altitude (and zero deg inclination on equatorial plane)
GSLV Mk III is a three-stage heavy lift launch vehicle developed by ISRO. The vehicle has two solid strap-ons, a core liquid booster and a cryogenic upper stage. 
96. In August 2017, the Lok Sabha passed the bill to repeal the SBI (Subsidiary Banks) Act 1959, State Bank of Hyderabad Act 1956 and to further amend the State Bank of India Act, 1955, following the merger of five associates with the parent SBI.
Announced in 2015, Indradhanush is a seven-pronged revamp plan for public sector banks (PSBs) that includes a capital infusion to the tune of Rs 70,000 crore by FY 2019. 
97. Do not attract any tax under GST: Cereal grains otherwise worked (for example, hulled, rolled, flaked, pearled, sliced or kibbled), except rice; Eggs Birds’ eggs, in shell, fresh, preserved or cooked; Newspapers, journals and periodicals, whether or not illustrated or containing advertising material; Fresh and unprocessed seafood is exempt from GST.
98. This 2006 act defines the Critical Wildlife Habitats (CWH)  as the “areas of national parks and sanctuaries where it has been specifically and clearly established, case by case, on the basis of scientific and objective criteria, that such areas are required to be kept as inviolate for the purposes of wildlife conservation…”.
Living in the dense sal forests of Maikal Hills, where streams intersect their homesteads, the Baigas in Dindori district of Madhya Pradesh have gained the right to their habitat by 2006 Act.
The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006 (FRA) has a special section regarding the 75 PVGTs in the country. 
99. According to the general mode of primary infection plant diseases are recognized as:- Soil borne; Seed borne, including diseases carried with planting material; Wind borne; Insect borne etc.
Indirect transmission: Wind dispersal; Water dissemination; Animals; Birds; Insects; etc.
100. Ministry of Commerce has implemented the National Programme for Organic Production (NPOP) since 2001.
Sikkim has become India’s first fully organic state by implementing organic practices on around 75,000 hectares of agricultural land.

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