Words Used as Different Parts of Speech (PoS)


Ajit Kumar AJIT KUMARWISDOM IAS, New Delhi.

Important words which may belong to different parts of speech according to the way in which they are used.
 
About ( regarding, on, re, concerning, approximately, around, almost, nearing, round, around, present, active, stirring )
Adverb. -- reduced by about 5 per cent. (लगभग)
Preposition. -- I was thinking about you. (के विषय में)
 
Above ( over, upon, beyond, on top of , earlier mentioned, previously mentioned, formerly mentioned, foregoing, preceding, earlier, previous, prior, more than, over, exceeding, higher than, senior to, over, ahead of, in charge of )
Adverb. -- The heavens are above. ( ऊपर)
Preposition. -- The moral law is above the civil.( बढ़कर)
Adjective. -- Analyse the above sentence. (उपर्युक्त )
Noun. -- Our blessings come from above. ( ऊपर)
 
After (following, chasing, pursuing, on the hunt for, looking for, searching for, in search of, trying to find, apart from, barring, excepting, next to, with the same name as, in the name of, in honour of, the same as  )
Adverb. -- They arrived soon after. तत्पश्चात
Preposition. -- He takes after his father. (अनुसरण में);
Conjunction. -- We went away after they had left. ( बाद )  
 
All (completely, totally, fully, entirely)
Determiner -  ‘10 per cent of all cars sold. ( कुल)
Adjective. -- All men are mortal. (सभी)
Adverb. -- He was all alone when I saw him. ( पूर्णतया)
Pronoun. -- We all have different needs (सभी लोग)
 
Any (a scrap of, a bit of, a grain of, a fragment of , a single one, any one, a single member, whichever, every, at all, somewhat, in the least, to an extent )
Determiner - I'm not making any promises. ( कोई)
Adjective. -- Are there any witnesses present? (कोई भी)
Pronoun. -- The plants are inspected for insects and if I find any, they are squashed.( कोई एक)
Adverb. -- Is that any better? I can't see things getting any easier for graduates. (थोड़ा भी)
 
As (when, while, just as, at the time that, in the role of, being, under the name of, in the character of, in the way that, like, in the manner that, since, because, seeing that, considering that)
 
Adverb. -- It tasted like grape juice but not as sweet ( जैसा )
Conjunction. -- As he was poor I helped him. (क्योंकि)
Preposition - She got a job as a cook. ( के रूप में)
 
Before (earlier than, ahead of, prior to, in advance of, previously, earlier, sooner, in advance , in the past, earlier, once, previously, in front of, ahead of, in advance of, to the fore of )
 
Adverb -- The war had ended only a month or so before. ( के पहले)
Preposition. -- Annie was born a few weeks before Christmas. (पूर्व)
Conjunction. -- They would die before they would cooperate with each other. (से पहले)
 
Better (to a greater degree, more completely, more thoroughly, beat, top, exceed, excel,  improve, further, raise, forward )
Adjective. -- He is much better now, he's fine. (पहले से स्वस्थ)
Adverb. -- I like your interpretation better than the one I was taught. (अधिक अच्छा)
Noun. -- Sit down and be quiet in front of your elders and betters (people in higher position).( योग्य व्यक्ति)
Pronoun -- We expect better of you in the future. (अधिक अच्छा)
Verb. -- Our parents chose to come here with the hope of bettering themselves. (अच्छा वेतन प्राप्त करना)
 
Both (the two; the one and the other, together; equally; as well, )
Determiner - Put both vegetables into a bowl and crush with a potato masher.
Adjective. -- You cannot have it both ways. ( उभय)
Pronoun. -- Both are to blame. (दोनों)
Conjunction. -- Now women work both before and after having their children. (दोनों)
 
But ( however, still, yet, nevertheless, except (for), save, bar, barring, only, just, simply, merely  )
 
Adverb. -- He is but a shadow of his former self. (बल्कि)
Preposition. -- He didn't speak anything but Greek. (सिवाय)
Conjunction. -- We tried hard, but did not succeed. (फिर भी)
Noun -- He committed a crime, no ifs or buts about it. (परंतु)
 
Down (Towards or in a lower place or position, along, to the other end of, throughout the length of, from one end to the other of, Knock or bring to the ground, Consume, Unhappy, depressed)
 
Adverb. -- The sun started to go down. (नीचे उतारना)
Preposition. -- Tears streaming down her face. (नीचे गिरना)
Adjective. -- The porter was killed by the down train.
Noun. -- He has seen the ups and downs of life. (उतरब)
Verb. -- He downed (consumed) five pints of cider (निगलना)
 
Either (Used to indicate a similarity or link with a statement just made, for that matter; moreover, One or the other of two people or things )
 
Determiner -- There were ladies at either end of the table. (हर )
Adjective. -- Use either hand. (कोई एक)
Adverb - He did not even say anything to her, and she did not speak to him either. (न ही)
Pronoun. -- Their mortgage will be repaid if either of them dies. (दोनों में से एक)
Conjunction. -- He must either work or starve. (या तो)
 
Else (In addition; besides, different, instead, )
 
Adjective. -- Cigarettes are in short supply, like everything else here. (अन्य)
Adverb. -- I never wanted to live anywhere else. ( के अलावा)
Conjunction. -- Make haste, else you will miss the train. (अन्यथा)
 
Enough (As much or as many as required, to the required degree or extent, fairly,)
 
Determiner -- There was just enough room for two cars. (पर्याप्त)
Pronoun  -- I think I have said enough. (काफ़ी)
Adjective. -- You're not big enough for basketball. (पर्याप्त रूप से)
Adverb. -- The rest of the evening passed pleasantly enough. (काफ़ी)
Noun. -- I have had enough of this. (यथेष्ट)
 
Even (despite, in spite of, disregarding, notwithstanding, all the more, much, still, yet, flat and smooth, in the same plane or line; level, equal in number, amount, or value )
 
Adjective. -- It was an even game. (बराबर)
Verb. -- Let us even the ground. (समतल)
Adverb. -- He didn't even hear what I said.( यहाँ तक कि)
Noun – Evens live in the Kamchatka peninsula, (इवेंस जनजाति)
 
Except (Not including; other than, to leave out, omit, exclude, to take exception, object )
 
Verb -- Five classes of advertisement are excepted from control. (आपत्ति करना)
Preposition. -- I was naked except for my socks.( को छोड़ कर)
Conjunction. -- I didn't tell him anything, except that I needed the money.( के अतिरिक्त)
 
For (Because; since, in support of or in favour of, affecting, with regard to, or in respect of, having as a reason or cause, having as a destination, in relation to the expected norm of )
 
Preposition. -- They voted for independence in a referendum. (के लिये)
Conjunction. -- He felt guilty, for he knew that he bore a share of responsibility for father’s death. (के कारण)
 
Less (to a smaller extent, little, barely, not much, of lower rank or importance   )
 
Determiner -- People should eat less fat to reduce the risk of heart disease. (अल्प परिमाण से)
Adjective. -- You are paying less attention to your studies than you used to do. (कम) Adverb. -- The population of India is less than that of China. (कम)
Noun. -- He wants Rs. 600 for that watch. He won't be satisfied with less. (थोड़े में)
Pronoun -- Borrowers are striving to ease their financial position by spending less and saving more. (थोड़ा)
 
Like (Having the same characteristics or qualities as, similar to, in the manner of; in the same way or to the same degree as,  liking, favourite, preference, cup of tea)
 
Adjective. -- They are men of like build and stature.( समान)
Preposition. -- What did she look like? (भाँति)
Adverb. -- like as a father pitieth his own children.
Noun. -- I thought that I knew everything about Jemma: her likes and dislikes, her political viewpoints. (पसंद )
Verb. -- He likes baseball.
Conjunction -- He spoke exactly like I did. (पसन्द करना)
Little (Small in size, amount, or degree, young or younger, short distance or duration, to a small extent)
 
Adjective. -- My little brother.( छोटा)
Noun. -- You only see a little of what he can do. (नगण्य)
Adverb. -- I was always a little afraid of her. (थोड़ा सा)
Determiner -- I had little money and little free time. (कुछ)
 
More (A greater or additional amount or degree, to a greater extent, again, moreover)
 
Adjective. -- We have more time than we thought (ज्यादा)
Pronoun. -- I told him the truth. No more, no less. (अधिक)
Adverb. –  Prison conditions have become more brutal.( और अधिक)
Determiner -- More and more people are surviving heart attacks. ( अधिकतर)
Much (A large amount, to a great extent; a great deal, )
 
Adjective. -- There is much sense in what he says. (बहुत)
Pronoun. -- There was so much to talk about. (आधिक मात्रा में)
Adverb. -- She laughs too much. ( ज्यादा)
Determiner -- Japan has been reluctant to offer much aid to Russia. (और)
 
Near (At or to a short distance away; nearby, close to (a state); verging on, short period of time from)
 
Adverb. – A bomb exploded somewhere near. (निकट)
Preposition. -- His house is near the temple. (के नज़दीक)
Adjective. -- He is a near relation. (निकट )
Verb. -- Soon the cab would be nearing Rajiv Chouck. (निकट पहुँचना)
 
Needs (what is required; necessities, of necessity)
 
1.  Noun. -- His needs are modest.  ज़रूरत
Verb. -- It needs to be done with care.( करने की आवयश्कता)
Adverb. -- He needs must come.( अवश्य कर के)
 
Neither (Not the one nor the other of two people or things; not either)
 
Determiner -- At first, neither man could speak. (दोंनों में से काई )
Conjunction. -- Professor Hisamatsu spoke neither English nor German. (न यह न वह)
Adjective. -- Neither accusation is true. कोई भी नहीं
Pronoun. -- It is difficult to negotiate where neither will trust. कोई भी नहीं
 
Next (The next period of time, event, person, or thing )
 
Determiner - Let's plan a big night next week. आने वाला
Adjective. -- I shall be 26 years old on Friday next. अगला
Adverb. -- What next? अगला
Preposition. -- He was sitting next her. पास में
Pronoun - He predicted that the region's economy would grow by about six per cent both this year and next. आने वाला
Noun. -- I shall tell you more about it in my next. बाद वाला
 
No (Not at all; to no extent, expressing disagreement or contradiction, expressing shock or disappointment, )
Determiner --There is no excuse. कोई नहीं
Adjective. -- It is no joke.  तनिक भी नहीं
Adverb. -- He is no more. मृत
Noun. -- I will not take a no. इनकार
Exclamation -- Oh no, look at this!
 
Once (On one occasion or for one time only, as soon as, when)
 
Adverb. -- I was young once. (कभी) Once two is two.  एक दफ़ा
Conjunction. -- Once the grapes were pressed, the juice was put into barrels. एक बार जब
Noun. -- Please help me for once.  एक बार
Pronoun -- Listen to us, if only this once.   एक मरतबा
 
One (The lowest cardinal number; half of two, a single person or thing, )
 
Determiner - One person I hate is Rudra. अकेला आदमी
Adjective. -- One day I met him in the street. किसी
Pronoun. -- We test each one to see that it flies well. प्रत्येक
Noun. -- One would think he was mad. कोई
 
Only (and no one or nothing more besides, solely, not until, except that; but)
 
Adjective. -- It was his only chance. एकमात्र
Adverb. -- a final report reached him only on January 15. महज
Conjunction. -- He is still a young man, only he seems older because of his careworn expression. सिर्फ
 
Over (Extending directly upwards from, above so as to cover or protect, at a higher level or layer than)
 
Adverb. -- The car flipped (tossed) over. पलटना
Noun. -- In one over he took three wickets. क्रिकेट की ओवर
Preposition. -- Cook the sauce over a moderate heat. के ऊपर
 
Right (Morally good, justified, or acceptable, true or correct as a fact, exactly, directly )
 
Verb. -- That is a fault that will right itself. सुधारना
Adjective. -- I hope we're doing the right thing. उचित
Noun. -- I ask it as a right. अधिकार
Adverb. -- Harsha was standing right behind her. पूरी तरह से
 
Round (throughout, all over, everywhere in, here and there in, a circular piece of something)
 
Adjective. -- A square peg in a round hole.  गोल
Noun. -- Cut the pastry into rounds. गोलाकार
Adverb. -- Manjari looked round in surprise. चक्रवत
Preposition. -- They were sitting round the kitchen table. चारों ओर
Verb. -- We shall round the cape / shawl in safety.  घेरना
Since (In the intervening period, for the reason that, because, ago)
 
Preposition. – Laloo Prasad has been a member of parliament since 1987.  के बाद
Conjunction. -- So much has changed in the sport since I was a teenager.  के बाद से
Adverb. -- I returned home to Patna and have since worked as a solicitor. पश्चात
So (To such a great extent, extremely; very much)
Adverb. -- I am so sorry. बहुत अधिक
Conjunction. -- They whisper to each other so that no one else can hear, ताकि
 
Some (An unspecified amount or number of, approximately)
 
Determiner -- He played some records for me. कुछ
Adjective. -- We must find some way out of it. कोई
Pronoun. -- If you want whisky I'll give you some.  थोड़ा
Adverb. -- Some thirty chiefs were present. लग-भग
 
Still (Not moving or making a sound, silence and calm, quieten )
 
Verb. -- The din in the hall stilled.  शांत हो जाना
Adjective. -- Still waters run deep. स्थिर
Noun. -- The still of the night. सन्नाटा
Adverb. -- He is still in business. अभी भी
 
Such (Of the type previously mentioned, to so high a degree; so great )
 
Determiner - There have been previous attempts at coups. We regard such methods as entirely unacceptable. इस प्रकार का
Predeterminer -- Autumn's such a beautiful season.  इतना
Adjective. -- Don't be in such a hurry. ऐसा
Pronoun. -- Such was not my intention. ऐसा
 
That (Used to identify a specific person or thing observed or heard by the speaker, to such a degree, so, a reason or cause)
Determiner -  He lived in Mysore at that time. उस
Adjective. -- What is that noise. यह
 
Pronoun. -- Hello, is that Banty? वह 
Adverb. -- I have done that much only. इस हद तक
Pronoun. -- The evil that men do lives after them.  जो 
Conjunction. -- She was so tired that she couldn't think कि
 
The (used preceding a noun that has been previously specified, used with a qualifying word or phrase)
 
Article. -- The cat loves comfort. Give me the blue one
Determiner - Six of the 38 people were Russian citizens.
Adverb. -- The wiser he is, the better.
 
Till (less formal way of saying until, cultivate, dig, plough, work )
 
Preposition. -- They had to wait till Monday to ring the bank manager. तक
Conjunction. -- Do not start till I give the word.  तब तक
Noun -- long queues at tills (counters) that make customers angry. दराज
Verb --  There is a freshly tilled field. जोतना
 
 
Up (Towards a higher place or position, upstairs, visible after daybreak)
 
Adverb. -- He stood up and went to the window. उठना
Preposition. -- They were climbing up a narrow mountain road.  के ऊपर
Adjective. -- The next up train will leave here at 12.30.
Noun. -- They had their ups and downs of fortune. उतार
 
Well (In a good or satisfactory way to a great extent or degree, intimately, closely)
 
Noun. -- Let well alone. निरोग
Adjective. -- I don't feel very well. ठीक
Adverb. -- The whole team played well. बखूबी
Interjection. -- Well, who would have thought it?  अरे वाह!
Exclamation -- Well, really! The manners of some people!    अहा
 
 
What (Asking for information specifying something, asking for information specifying something, indicate an estimate or approximation)
 
Determiner – What time is it? कितना
Predeterminer  -- What a horrible thing to do. कैसा
Adjective. -- What evidence have you got?  कौन
Interjection. -- What ! you don't mean to say so?
Pronoun. -- What is your name? क्या
Adverb. -- What do you want? क्या
Conjunction -- I want to know what happened to Norman. क्या
 
While (A period of time, at the same time, meanwhile, until)
 
Noun. -- She retired a little while ago.  समय
Verb. -- They while away their evenings with books and games. व्यर्थ समय बिताना
Conjunction. -- Nothing much changed while he was away. जिस समय
Preposition -- Father will be happy while dinner time. तब तक
 
Why (For what reason or purpose, expressing surprise or indignation )
 
Adverb. -- Why did you do it? क्यों
Relative Adverb. -- I know the reason why he did it. किस कारण से
Interjection. -- Why, it is surely Nanak!
Noun. -- The whys and wherefores of these procedures need to be explained to students. क्यों
Exclamation - Why, that's absurd! You think so?’ ‘Why, yes.
 
Yet (Up until the present or a specified or implied time; by now or then, as soon as the present or a specified or implied time)
 
Adverb. -- I haven't told anyone else yet. अभी तक
Conjunction. -- The path was dark, yet I slowly found my way.  तब भी



Thursday, 09th Feb 2017, 03:37:07 AM

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