What is monetary Policy? What are its objectives?


Ajit Kumar AJIT KUMARWISDOM IAS, New Delhi.

What is monetary Policy? What are its objectives?

 Monetary policy is the macroeconomic policy laid down by the central bank. It involves management of money supply and interest rate and is the demand side economic policy used by the government of a country to achieve macroeconomic objectives like inflation, consumption, growth and liquidity. It is a regulatory policy by which the central bank or monetary authority of a country controls the supply of money, availability of bank credit and cost of money, that is, the rate of Interest to attain a set of objectives oriented towards the growth and stability of the economy.

Monetary policy rests on the relationship between the rates of interest in an economy, that is the price at which money can be borrowed, and the total supply of money. Monetary policy uses a variety of tools to control one or both of these, to influence outcomes like economic growth, inflation, exchange rates with other currencies and unemployment. Where currency is under a monopoly of issuance, or where there is a regulated system of issuing currency through banks which are tied to a central bank, the monetary authority has the ability to alter the money supply and thus influence the interest rate to achieve policy goals.

In India

 In India, monetary policy of the Reserve Bank of India is aimed at managing the quantity of money in order to meet the requirements of different sectors of the economy and to increase the pace of economic growth. The RBI implements the monetary policy through open market operations, bank rate policy, reserve system, credit control policy, moral persuasion and through many other instruments. Using any of these instruments will lead to changes in the interest rate, or the money supply in the economy. Monetary policy can be expansionary and contractionary in nature. Increasing money supply and reducing interest rates indicate an expansionary policy. The reverse of this is a contractionary monetary policy.

Objective

Following are the main objectives of monetary policy in India :-
     (i) Growth With Stability Traditionally, RBI’s monetary policy was focused on controlling inflation through contraction of money supply and credit. This resulted in poor growth performance. Thus, RBI have now adopted the policy of ‘Growth with Stability’. This means sufficient credit will be available for growing needs of different sectors of economy and at the same time, inflation will be controlled with in a certain limit.

      (ii) Regulation, Supervision And Development Of Financial Stability Financial stability means the ability of the economy to absorb shocks and maintain confidence in financial system. Threats to financial stability can come from internal and external shocks. Such shocks can destabilize the country’s financial system. Thus, greater importance is being given to RBI’s role in maintaining confidence in financial system through proper regulation and controls, without sacrificing the objective of growth. Therefore, RBI is focusing on regulation, supervision and development of financial system.

      (iii) Promoting Priority Sector Priority sector includes agriculture, export and small scale enterprises and weaker section of population. RBI with the help of bank provides timely and adequately credit at affordable cost of weaker sections and low income groups. RBI, along with NABARD, is focusing on microfinance through the promotion of Self Help groups and other institutions.
      (iv) Generation Of Employment Monetary policy helps in employment generation by influencing the rate of investment and allocation of investment among various economic activities of different labour Intensities.
       (v) External Stability With the growth of imports and exports India’s linkages with global economy are getting stronger. Earlier, RBI controlled foreign exchange market by determining eaxchange rate. Now, RBI has only indirect control over external stability through the mechanism of ‘managed Flexibility’, where it influences exchange rate by buying and selling foreign currencies in open market.
      (vi) Encouraging Savings And Investments :-
RBI by offering attractive interest rates encourage savings in the economy. A high rate of saving promotes investment. Thus the monetary management by influencing rates of interest can influence saving mobilization in the country.
      (vii)    Redistribution Of income And Wealth By control of inflation and deployment of credit to weaker sectors of society the monetary policy may redistribute income and wealth favouring to weaker sections.
      (viii)Regulation Of NBFIs Non-banking Financial Institutions (NBFIs), like UTI, IDBI, IFCI plays an important role in deployment of credit and mobilization of savings. RBI does not have any direct control on the functioning of such institutions. However it can indirectly affects the policies and functions of NBFIs through its monetary policy.
 





Thursday, 12th Apr 2018, 02:57:15 AM

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