Swine Flu


Ajit Kumar AJIT KUMARWISDOM IAS, New Delhi.

Swine flu (swine influenza) is a respiratory disease caused by viruses (influenza viruses) that infect the respiratory tract of pigs, resulting in nasal secretions, a barking cough, decreased appetite, and listless behavior. Swine flu produces most of the same symptoms in pigs as human flu produces in people. Swine flu can last about one to two weeks in pigs that survive.

Swine influenza virus was first isolated from pigs in 1930 in the U.S. and has been recognized by pork producers and veterinarians to cause infections in pigs worldwide. In a number of instances, people have developed the swine flu infection when they are closely associated with pigs (for example, farmers, pork processors), and likewise, pig populations have occasionally been infected with the human flu infection. In most instances, the cross-species infections (swine virus to man; human flu virus to pigs) have remained in local areas and have not caused national or worldwide infections in either pigs or humans. Unfortunately, this cross-species situation with influenza viruses has had the potential to change.

Investigators decided the 2009 so-called "swine flu" strain, first seen in Mexico, should be termed novel H1N1 flu since it was mainly found infecting people and exhibits two main surface antigens, H1 (hemagglutinin type 1) and N1 (neuraminidase type1). The eight RNA strands from novel H1N1 flu have one strand derived from human flu strains, two from avian (bird) strains, and five from swine strains.

Swine flu (H1N1 and H3N2v influenza virus) facts

- Swine flu is a respiratory disease caused by influenza viruses that infect the respiratory tract of pigs and result in a barking cough, decreased appetite, nasal secretions, and listless behavior; the virus can be transmitted to humans.
- Swine flu viruses may mutate (change) so that they are easily transmissible among humans.
- The 2009 swine flu outbreak (pandemic) was due to infection with the H1N1 virus and was first observed in Mexico.
- Symptoms of swine flu in humans are similar to most influenza infections: fever (100 F or greater), cough, nasal secretions, fatigue, and headache.
- The incubation period for the disease is about one to four days.
- Swine flu is contagious about one day before symptoms develop to about five to seven days after symptoms develop; some patients may be contagious for a longer time span.
- The disease lasts about three to seven days with more serious infections lasting about nine to 10 days.
- Vaccination is the best way to prevent or reduce the chances of becoming infected with influenza viruses.
- Primary-care specialists, pediatricians, and emergency-medicine doctors usually treat the disease, but other specialists may be consulted if the flu is severe and/or complicated.
- Two antiviral agents, zanamivir (Relenza) and oseltamivir (Tamiflu), have been reported to help prevent or reduce the effects of swine flu if taken within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms.
- There are various methods listed in this article to help individuals from getting the flu.
- Home remedies are available, but patients should check with their doctors before use; over-the-counter medications may help reduce symptoms.
- The most serious complication of the flu is pneumonia.
 



Friday, 20th Jan 2017, 09:55:38 AM

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