Root words – II


Ajit Kumar AJIT KUMARWISDOM IAS, New Delhi.


                                Root words – II



                         Meanings with examples



 
51. cerebr/o – brain –
cerebral - pertaining to the brain; मस्तिष्क का
A cerebral haemorrhage.( from haima ‘blood’ + the stem of rhēgnunai ‘burst’.).  रक्तस्राव
cerebrate - to use the brain;  think; ponder; consider  सोचना
cerebrospinal - pertaining to the brain and the spinal cord; मस्तिष्क - रीढ़ संबंधी
52. cert –sure –
ascertain- to find out something with certainty;  पता लगाना
An attempt to ascertain the cause of the accident.
certain - being absolutely sure; निस्संदेह
 certify - to state that something is true; प्रमाणित करना
 
53. chrom/o chromat/o, chros - color, pigment –
 
achromatic - without color;  वर्णहीन
chromium - a blue-white metallic chemical element; वर्णातु
chromatics - the study of color; वर्ण-विज्ञान
 
54. chron/o – time –
chronic - lasting for a long time; चिरकालिक
Chronic bronchitis.
chronological - arranging events in time order, कालानुक्रमिक
synchronize - happening at the same time; समकालिक होना
 



55. syn- Acting or considered together; united -



Synchrony - Simultaneous action, development, or occurrence.
Syncarpous  - having the carpels (अंडप) united.
Synthesis - The process of making compound and derivative words. संश्लेषण करना
 
56. chrys/o - gold, yellow –
Chrysanthemum ( गुलदाउदी) and helichrysum - golden/yellow flowers;
chrysolite - a yellowish gem; क्रिज़ोलिट
 
57. cide, cise - cut, kill –
homicide - the killing of a human being by another human being; मानवहत्या
incisor - a sharp tooth for cutting food; कृन्तक दांत
insecticide - a chemical used to kill insects,;  कीटनाशक
 
58. circum, circle - around, about –
circumnavigate - to sail around; जहाज़ द्वारा परिभ्रमण करना
circumscribe - Restrict (something) within limits; (from circum ‘around’ + scribere ‘write’.) पाबंदी लगाना
circumspect - Wary and unwilling to take risks; एहतियाती
The officials were very circumspect in their statements.
 
59.claim, clam - shout, speak out-
 
clamor - to shout and make noise; चिल्लाना
exclaim - to cry out loudly and suddenly; चिल्लाकर कहना
proclamation - something announced officially in public; उद्घोषणा
 
60. clarare - make clear-
 clarification – an explanation; स्पष्टीकरण 
clarify - to make something clear;  स्पष्ट करना
declare - to state something clearly; ( from de- ‘thoroughly’ + clarare ‘make clear’); निश्चयपूर्वक कहना
 
61. clud, clus- close –
conclusion - the end or last part; अन्त
exclusion - shutting out, rejecting; अपवाद
seclude - to keep away from; to isolate; अलग रखना
I secluded myself up here for a life of study and meditation.
 
62. cline – lean –
inclination - a leaning toward; झुकाव
incline - a surface that slopes or leans;  ढाल होना
recline - to lean back and relax; (from re- ‘back’ + clinare ‘to bend’)
she was reclining in a deckchair.
 
63. co- with, together, joint-
coauthor - writer who collaborates with another author;
coeducation - educating males and females together;
cohousing - planning your neighborhood in an intentional neighborly
 
64. col - together, jointly –
Collaborate - to work together; (from col- ‘together’ + laborare ‘to work’.) एक साथ कार्य करना
collision - smashing together; टक्कर
collocate – In linguistics, if one word collocates with another, they often occur together. (col- ‘together’ + locare ‘to place’);  सजाना
Collocates for the word ‘mortgage’ include ‘lend’ and ‘property’’
65. com - together, common –
commemorate - to memorize together; स्मरण करना
composition - an arrangement or putting together of parts;  रचना
 commune - living together while owning things in common; समुदाय 
 
66. cogn/i – know –
cognition - process of acquiring knowledge; संज्ञान
incognito - disguised so no one knows you; भेस बदले हुए
recognize - to discover that one knows; ( from re- ‘again’ + cognoscere ‘learn’) पहचान लेना
 
67. con - with, jointly –
concur - to agree with someone;  सहमत होना
‘‘That's right,’ the chairman concurred’.
contemporary - of the same time period as others; (from con- ‘together with’ + tempus, tempor- ‘time’ ); समकालीन
 convention - a gathering of people with a common interest; सम्मेलन 
 
68. contra/o - against, opposite –
Contradict -  to argue against; विरोध करना
Contraflow - A temporary arrangement where traffic on a road is transferred from its usual side to share the other half of the carriageway with traffic moving in the opposite direction.
Contraception - refers to methods of preventing pregnancy. गर्भनिरोध
Contrary - not in agreement; प्रतिकूल
Controversy -  disagreement; (from contro- (variant of contra- ‘against’) + versus, past participle of vertere ‘to turn’)  विवाद
 
69. corp/o –body –
Corporation - a company recognized by law as a single body;  निगम 
corpse - a dead body;  शव
corporal - pertaining to the body; शारीरिक
 
70. cosm/o – universe –
cosmonaut - astronaut, spaceman, space pilot, space cadet   ; अंतरिक्ष-यात्री
cosmos - the universe; ब्रह्माण्ड
microcosm - a miniature universe; (mikros kosmos -  ‘little world’) सूक्ष्म ब्रह्माण्ड
 
71. counter - opposite, contrary, opposing –
counteract - to oppose the effects of an action; प्रतिकार करना
countermand - to cancel a previous order; (contra- ‘against’ + mandare ‘to order’.)  पूर्व आदेश को वापस लेना
counteroffensive - attack against an attack.
 
72. cranio – skull –
craniology - The scientific study of the shape and size of the skulls of different human races;  कपाल विज्ञान
cranium - skull of vertebrates;   कपाल 
cranial - pertaining to the skull;  कपालीय
73. credere – believe –
credence - belief that something is true or valid;  साख 
credulous - believing things too easily, gullible; विश्वासप्रवण ; भोला-भाला
incredible – unbelievable; (from in- ‘not’ + credibilis) अविश्वसनीय
 
74. cruc – cross –
crucial- Decisive or critical, especially in the success or failure of something; निर्णायक
Negotiations were at a crucial stage.
crucifix-  A representation of a cross with a figure of Christ on it;  (cruci fixus ‘fixed to a cross’)
A large silver crucifix on a chain. क्रूसफिक्स
excruciating-  so intense as to cause great pain or anguish; अति दुखदाई
Excruciating back pain.
 
75. cryptos - hidden, secret –
cryptic - of hidden meaning;  छिपा हुआ
cryptography - science of secret codes; कूट-लेखन
encrypt - encode into secret code; कूट करना
 
76. cumulus- mass, heap –
accumulate - to gather or pile up; (from ad- ‘to’ + cumulus ‘a heap’.) एकत्र हो जाना
The toxin accumulated in their bodies.
cumulative - gradually building up; संचयी
 
77. curr, curs – run –
concurrent- running parallel; (concurrent- ‘running together, meeting’,) एक साथ होने वाला
current- flowing easily and smoothly; प्रवाह
cursive-  Written with the characters joined  प्रवाही
Cursive script.
 
78. cycl - circle, ring –
bicycle - a vehicle with two wheels;
cycle - a sequence that is repeated; चक
cyclone - a storm with circling winds; typhoon, hurricane, tornado, whirlwind  चक्रवात
 
79. de - reduce, away, down, remove –
decelerate - to slow down, reduce speed;  धीमा होना
dethrone - to remove from power; अपदस्थ करना
debug - to remove bugs; the process of identifying and removing errors from computer hardware or software. दोष मुक्त करना
 
80. dec/a,  - ten –
decade - 10 years;  दशक 
decathlon - athletic contest that includes 10 disciplines in which each participant competes; (deca- ‘ten’ + athlon ‘contest’.)
December - formerly the 10th month of the Roman calendar
 
81. Deci – one – tenth –
deciliter - a tenth of a liter;
decimate - reduce dramatically; devastate, wipe out, ravage   तबाह करना
decibel - one tenth of the sound volume unit ;  डेसीबल
82 dem/o – people –
democracy - government of the people; लोकतन्त्र
demographic - the study of people; जनांकिक
epidemic - spreading among people in a region; ( from epi ‘upon’ + dēmos ‘the people’.) संक्रामक
83. Demi – half, less than –
demitasse - a small cup of coffee;
demimonde - someone of little respected life style;
Demigod – Being with partial or lesser divine status; अर्धदेव; यक्ष
Demilune – A crescent or half-circle, or a thing of this shape.   अर्ध चांद
84. dendr/o/i – tree –
philodendron - A tropical American climbing plant which is widely grown as a greenhouse or indoor plant; ( philo- ‘loving’ + Greek dendron ‘tree’.)
dendrochronology - dating events by studying growth rings in trees;
dendriform - in the shape of a tree;  वृक्ष के समान आकार का
85. dent, don’t  - tooth –
dental - relating to teeth; दांत संबंधी
dentist - a doctor for the teeth;  दंत-चिकित्सक
dentures - a set of false teeth; कृत्रिम दंतावली
 
86. derm/a – skin –
dermatologist - a doctor for the skin;  त्वचाविशेषज्ञ
pachyderm - a class of animals with very thick skin (elephant, rhinoceros); (from pakhus ‘thick’ + derma ‘skin’.) मोटी चमड़ी का
dermatitis - inflammation of the skin which makes skin red and painful.;  त्वचाशोथ
 
87. di/plo -   two, twice –
dichromatic - displaying two colors; दो रंगवाला
diploma - a certificate, literally "a letter folded double"; (from diploun ‘to fold’, from diplous ‘double’.) अधिकार-पत्र
dilemma - a situation that requires a choice between two alternatives.
dimethyl ether - a compound used as a propellant in aerosol canisters (cylinder).
 
88. di/s – apart, away,  not, to the opposite –
digression - a departure from the main issue, subject; विषयांतर
Let's return to the main topic after that brief digression.
disappear - to move out of sight; लुप्त हो जाना
dissect - to cut apart piece by piece; (from dis- ‘apart’ + secare ‘to cut’.) टुकड़े करना
 
89. dia - through, between,  apart, across –
diabetes - disease characterized by excessive thirst and discharge of urine; ( from diabainein ‘go through’; mellitus is from Latin mellitus ‘sweet’)  मधुमेह; बहुमूत्ररोग
diagnosis - understanding a condition by going through a detailed review of symptoms; (dia ‘apart’ + gignōskein ‘recognize, know’.)  रोग का निर्णय
dialog - conversation between two people; (from dia ‘through’ + legein ‘speak’.);  संवाद 
 
90. dictare – speak
contradict - to express the opposite of; (contra dicere ‘speak against’) विपरीत होना
prediction - a statement foretelling the future; (from prae- ‘beforehand’ + dicere ‘say’.) भविष्यवाणी 
dictate - to speak out loud for another person to write down.  लिखाना
91. domin – master –
dominate - to be the master of; वर्चस्व रखना
domineering - excessively controlling; तानाशाही; दबंग
predominate - to have more power than others;  प्रभुत्व करना
 
92. donare – give –
donation - a contribution or gift;  दान 
donor - someone who gives something; दान देने वाला
pardon - to give forgiveness for an offense; (from per- ‘completely’ + donare ‘give’.) क्षमा करना
 
93. duc/t – lead –
conduct - The manner in which a person behaves, especially on a particular occasion or in a particular context; आचरण करना
deduction - a subtraction of an amount.( taken or led away); कटौती 
ductile –  able to be drawn out into a thin wire. नम्य
 
94. du/o - two, twice –
duplicate - make an identical copy;  () from duplic- ‘twofold’) नकल 
duet - a musical composition for two voices or instruments;  युगल गीत
duo - a pair normally thought of as being together;  युगल
duopoly - A situation in which two suppliers dominate the market for a commodity or service.
 
95. dur - harden, to last, lasting –
durable - having the quality of lasting; टिकाऊ
duration - the length of time something lasts;  कालावधि 
enduring - able to last long ;  चिरस्थायी;  An enduring problem.
96. dyn/a/am - power, energy, strength –
dynamo - a generator of energy; डायनामो
dynamic - having physical energy/power; ऊर्जस्वी
dynamite - a powerful explosive; (dunamis ‘power’ + -ite.) एक विस्फोटक पदार्थ
 
97. dys - abnormal, bad –
dyspepsia - abnormal digestion; (from duspeptos ‘difficult to digest’.); पेट में जलन
dystopia - an imaginary place of total misery; (dys- + Utopia= faulty + imaginary situation) आतंक राज्य
dyslexia - impairment of the ability to handle words; (dys- ‘difficult’ + Greek lexis ‘speech’); मानसिक विकार जिससे पढ़ने लिखने में कठिनाई हो
 
98. e- out, away –
eloquent - speaking beautifully and forcefully;  silver-tongued, moving, powerful, effective; (from e- (variant of ex-) ‘out’ + loqui ‘speak’) वाक्पटु
emissary - a representative of a country or group sent on a mission; envoy, agent, deputy, representative; (from emittere ‘send out’)  दूत
eject - throw out forcefully; throw out, remove, turn out, expel; (from e- (variant of ex-) ‘out’ + jacere ‘to throw’.) बाहर करना
 
99. ego – self –
egoistic - self-centered; अहंवादी
alter ego - a higher aspect of oneself; अंतरंग मित्र
egomania - excessive preoccupation with oneself; अहंकृति
 
100. em, en - into, cover with, -
empathy - intention to feel like another person;  (from em- ‘in’ + pathos ‘feeling’); समवेदना
empower - put into power; अधिकार देना
engorge – Eat to excess; glut; satiate ; (from en- ‘into’ + gorge ‘throat’.) ज़्यादा खाना
 
 




Friday, 07th Apr 2017, 08:23:33 PM

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