UPSC IAS Main Exam Questions asked in Last Three Years (2015, 2014 and 2013) in Economy


Ajit Kumar AJIT KUMARWISDOM IAS, New Delhi.

Following are the questions asked related to Economy in Main Exams in last three years (2015, 2014 and 2013) sorted out from GS Papers I, II and III.      


                                      (1) Economic Reform

Globalisation 2015

Q1. Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalization on women in India?

Globalisation 2013

17. Critically examine the effect of globalization on the aged population in India. (200 words)

Liberalisation  2013

7.    Examine the impact of liberalization on companies owned by Indians. Are they competing with the MNCs satisfactorily? Discuss. (200 words)
 
                                         (2) Growth and Development

Economic Growth  2015

Q2. The nature of economic growth in India in recent times is often described as a jobless growth. Do you agree with this view? Give arguments in favour of your answer.
Growth  2013

1.    With a consideration towards the strategy of inclusive growth, the new Companies Bill, 2013 has indirectly made CSR a mandatory obligation. Discuss the challenges expected in its implementation in right earnest. Also discuss other provisions in the Bill and their implications. (200 words)
Growth  2014

6. Capitalism has guided the world economy to unprecedented prosperity. However, it often encourages short-sightedness and contributes to wide disparities between the rich and the poor. In this light, would it be correct to believe and adopt capitalism for bringing inclusive growth in India? Discuss.
 
                                         (3) Public Finance

Public Finance 2013

2.    What were the reasons for the introduction of Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act, 2013? Discuss critically its salient features and their effectiveness. (200 words)

3.    What is the meaning of the term ‘tax expenditure’? Taking housing sector as an example, discuss how it influences the budgetary policies of the government. (200 words)

10.    Discuss the rationale for introducing the Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India. Bring out critically the reasons for the delay in roll out for its regime. (200 words)

Q.7. Discuss the recommendations of the 13th Finance Commission which have been a departure from the previous commissions for strengthening the local government finances. (200 words) 10

                                         (4) Agriculture
 
Agriculture/ Food Security 2015

Q3. Livestock rearing has a big potential for providing non- farm employment and income in rural areas. Discuss suggesting suitable measures to promote this sector in India.

Q4. In the view of the declining average size of land holdings in India which has made agriculture non – viable for a majority of farmers should contract farming and land leasing be promoted in agriculture? critically evaluate the pros and cons.

Q5. How can the Digital India program help farmers to improve farm productivity and income? What step has the government taken in this regard?

Agriculture 2014

3. There is also a point of view that Agricultural Produce Market Committees (APMCs) set up under the State Acts have not only impeded the development of agriculture but also have been the cause of food inflation in India. Critically examine.

4. "In the villages itself no form of credit organization will be suitable except the cooperative society." —All India Rural Credit Survey. 
Discuss this statement in the background of agricultural finance in India. What constraints and challenges do financial institutions supplying agricultural finance face? How can technology be used to better reach and serve rural clients?

Q22. Why did the Green Revolution in India virtually by-pass the eastern region despite fertile soil and good availability of water? 10

Agriculture / Food Security  2013

4.    Food Security Bill is expected to eliminate hunger and malnutrition in India. Critically discuss various apprehensions in its effective implementation along with the concerns it has generated in WTO. (200 words)

5.    What are the different types of agriculture subsidies given to farmers at the national and at state levels? Critically analyse the agricultural subsidy regime with reference to the distortions created by it. (200 words)

6.    India needs to strengthen measures to promote the pink revolution in food industry for ensuring better nutrition and health. Critically elucidate the statement. (200 words)

8.    Establish relationship between land reforms, agricultural productivity and elimination of poverty in the Indian economy. Discuss the difficulties in designing and implementation of agriculture – friendly land reforms in India. (200 words)
 
                                         (5) Industry
 
Industry/ Corporate 2015
 
Q6. What are the impediments in marketing and supply chain management in developing the food processing industry in India? Can e-commerce help in overcoming this bottleneck?

Q8. In the light of Satyam Scandal (2009), discuss the changes brought in the corporate governance to ensure transparency and accountability.

Q9. “Success of make in India program depends on the success of Skill India programme and radical labour reforms.” Discuss with logical arguments.

Q10. There is a clear acknowledgement that Special Economic Zones (SEZs) are a tool of industrial development, manufacturing and exports. Recognising this potential, the whole instrumentality of SEZs require augmentation. Discuss the issue plaguing the success of SEZs with respect to taxation, governing laws and administration.

Industry 2014

1. Normally countries shift from agriculture to industry and then later to services, but India shifted directly from agriculture to services. What are the reasons for the huge growth of services vis-a-vis industry in the country? Can India become a developed country without a strong industrial base?
 
Industry 2013

23. (a) Do you agree that there is a growing trend of opening new sugar mills in southern States of India? Discuss with justification. (100 words)

(b) Analyze the factors for the highly decentralized cotton textile industry in India.
 
                                         (6) Infrastructure

Infrastructure 2015

Q12. Smart cities in India cannot sustain without smart villages. Discuss this statement in the backdrop of rural urban integration.

Q13. To what factors can be the recent dramatic fall in equipment cost and tariff of solar energy be attributed? What implications does the trend have for thermal power producers and related industry?
Infrastructure 2014

7. Explain how Private Public Partnership arrangements, in long gestation infrastructure projects, can transfer unsustainable liabilities to the future. What arrangements need to be put in place to ensure that successive generations' capacities are not compromised?

8. National Urban Transport Policy emphasises on 'moving people' instead of 'moving vehicles'. Discuss critically the success of the various strategies of the Government in this regard.
Infrastructure 2013

11.    Write a note on India’s green energy corridor to alleviate the problem of conventional energy. (200 words)

12.    Adoption of PPP model for infrastructure development of the country has not been free of criticism. Critically discuss the pros and cons of the model. (200 words)

                                         (7) Financial SEctor
 
Finance/ Banking 2015

Q14. Examine critically the recent changes in the rule governing foreign funding of NGOs under the Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act (FCRA), 1976.

Q15. The Self Help Group (SHG) Bank Linkage Program (SBLP), which is India’s own innovation , has proved to be one of the most effective poverty alleviation and women empowerment programme. Elucidate.
 
Financial Sector 2013

Q.11. The legitimacy and accountability of Self Help Groups (SHGs) and their patrons, the micro-finance outfits, need systematic assessment and scrutiny for the sustained success of the concept. Discuss. (200 words) 10
 
                                         (8) Capital Market
 
Capital Market 2013

Q.8. The product diversification of financial institutions and insurance companies, resulting in overlapping of products and services strengthens the case for the merger of the two regulatory agencies, namely SEBI and IRDA. Justify. (200 words) 10 


                                         (9) Subsidy
 
 Subsidy 2015

Q16. In what way could replacement of price subsidy with direct benefit Transfer (DBT) change the scenario of subsidies in India? Discuss.
 
                                         (10)  Social Sector
 
Social Sector 2015

Poverty 2015
Q17. Critically examine whether growing population is the cause of poverty OR poverty is the mains cause of population increase in India.

Q18. Though there have been several different estimates of poverty in India, all indicate reduction in poverty over time. Do you agree. Critically examine with reference to urban and rural poverty indicators.

Demography 2015

Q19. How do you explain the statistics that show that the sex ratio in Tribes in India is more favourable to women than the sex ratio among Scheduled Castes?

Q20. Discuss the changes in the trends of labour migration within and outside India in the last four decades.

Health 2015

Q21. Public health system has limitation in providing universal health coverage. Do you think that private sector can help in bridging the gap? What other viable alternatives do you suggest?
Employment 2014

2. "While we flaunt India's demographic dividend, we ignore the dropping rates of employability." What are we missing while doing so? Where will the jobs that India desperately needs come from? Explain.
 
Social Sectors 2014

Q.11. Do government's schemes for up-lifting vulnerable and backward communities by protecting required social resources for them, lead to their exclusion in establishing businesses in urban economies? 12.5
 
Q12. Why do some of the most prosperous regions of India have an adverse sex ratio for women? Give your arguments. 10

Q14. Discuss the various economic and socio-cultural forces that are driving increasing feminization of agriculture in India10
 
Social Sector 2013

Q.9. The concept of Mid Day Meal (MDM) scheme is almost a century old in India with early beginnings in Madras Presidency in pre-independent India. The scheme has again been given impetus in most states in the last two decades. Critically examine its twin objectives, latest mandates and success(200 words) 10 

Q.12. The Central Government frequently complains on the poor performance of the State Governments in eradicating suffering of the vulnerable sections of the society. Restructuring of Centrally sponsored schemes across the sectors for ameliorating the cause of vulnerable sections of population aims at providing flexibility to the States in better implementation. Critically evaluate. (200 words) 10

Q.13. Electronic cash transfer system for the welfare schemes is an ambitious project to minimize corruption, eliminate wastage and facilitate reforms Comment. (200 words) 10

Q.14. The basis of providing urban amenities in rural areas (PURA) is rooted in establishing connectivity Comment. (200 words) 10

Q.15. Identify the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) that are related to health. Discuss the success of the actions taken by the Government for achieving the same. (200 words) 10
15. Discuss the various social problems which originated out of the speedy process of urbanization in India. (200 words)
 
                                         (11) External Sector
 
External Sector 2015

Q22. Craze for gold in Indian has led to surge in import of gold in recent years and put pressure on balance of payments and external value of rupee. In view of this, examine the merits of Gold Monetization scheme.

External Sector 2014

9. Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the defence sector is now set to be liberalized. What influence this is expected to have on Indian defence and economy in the short and long run?
 
12. In a globalized world, Intellectual Property Rights assume significance and are a source of litigation. Broadly distinguish between the terms—Copyrights, Patents and Trade Secrets.
Q.17. The aim of Information Technology Agreements (ITAs) is to lower all taxes and tariffs on information technology products by signatories to zero. What impact would such agreements have on India's interests? 12.5

Q.18. Some of the International funding agencies have special terms for economic participation stipulating a substantial component of the aid to be used for sourcing equipment from the leading countries. Discuss on merits of such terms and if, there exists a strong case not to accept such conditions in the Indian context. 12.5

Q.19. India has recently signed to become founding member of New Development Bank (NDB) and also the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB). How will the role of the two Banks be different? Discuss the strategic significance of these two Banks for India. 12.5

Q.20. WTO is an important international institution where decisions taken affect countries in a profound manner. What is the mandate of WTO and how binding are their decisions? Critically analyse India's stand on the latest round of talks on Food security12.5

Q25. How does India see its place in the economic space of rising natural resource rich Africa10
External Sector 2013

9.    a) Discuss the impact of FDI entry into Multi-trade retail sector on supply chain management in commodity trade pattern of the economy. (100 words)

9.    b) Though India allowed Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in what is called multi-brand retail through the joint venture route in September 2012, the FDI, even after a year, has not picked up. Discuss the reasons. (100 words)

21.    Money laundering poses a serious security threat to a country’s economic sovereignty. What is its significance for India and what steps are required to be taken to control this menace? (200 words)
 
                                         (12)  Climate Change
 
Climate Change 2015

Q23. Discuss the Namami Gange and National Mission for Clean Ganga (NMCG) programmes and causes of mixed results from the previous schemes. What quantum leaps can help preserve the river Ganga better than incremental inputs?

Climate Change  2014

13. Should the pursuit of carbon credits and clean development mechanisms set up under UNFCCC be maintained even though there has been a massive slide in the value of a carbon credit? Discuss with respect to India's energy needs for economic growth.
 
                                         (13) Legislation
 
Acts/Bills  2014
5. The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 has come into effect from 1st January, 2014. What are the key issues which would get addressed with the Act in place? What implications would it have on industrialization and agriculture in India?
 
 
 


Sunday, 13th Mar 2016, 11:41:47 AM

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