LSW - Bihar -Social security schemes


Ajit Kumar AJIT KUMARWISDOM IAS, New Delhi.

Bihar -Social security schemes

1. WIDOW PENSION 
INDIRA GANDHI WIDOW PENSION (CENTRAL GOVT.) For purpose of claiming central assistance, the following criteria shall apply:(1) The age of the widow shall be between 40-79 years.(2) The applicant must belong to a houshold below the poverty line according to the criteria prescribed by the Government Of India. 

2. LAXMI BAI SOCIAL SECURITY PENSION (BIHAR GOVT.) As the Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme (IGNWPS) only covers widows aged 40-79 years, some State Governments have launched state widow pension schemes.The Lakshmi Bai Pension Yojana in Bihar covers all widows above 18 years of age whose annual family income is below Rs. 60,000

3. DISABILITY PENSION
INDIRA GANDHI DISABILITY PENSION (CENTRAL GOVT.) Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme was introduced in Bihar during the year 2009-10 as a part of National Social Assistance Programme. The Scheme is being implemented through the funds received from Government of India. If applicant is receiving state social security pension, then he/she is ineligible to procure this pension. Under the scheme an amount of Rs.400 /- per month is paid to applicant. 

4. BIHAR STATE DISABILITY PENSION (BIHAR GOVT.) The disability pension scheme is known as Bihar State Disability Pension Scheme initiated by the State Government to cover only those persons with disabilities who are not covered under the Indira Gandhi National Disability Pension Scheme (IGNDPS). Eligibility Criteria (1).The applicant must be physically disabled and posses a certificate of minimum 40% of disability.(2).There is no minimum or maximum age limit for availing the benefits of the scheme.(3).There is no upper limit of annual income defined for availing the pension.(4).The applicant should be a resident of the State or should have been residing in the State for at least past 10 years, since the date of submission of the application.

5. OLD AGE PENSION
Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme (CENTRAL GOVT.): The National Old Age Pension Scheme was introduced in Bihar in 1995 under the National Social Assistance Programme 2007. In November 2007 the Scheme was renamed as the Indira Gandhi National Old Age Pension Scheme. The Scheme is designed for older persons who are at the age of 60 years or above. 
Mukhyamantri Vridhjan Pension

6. Yojna:Mukhyamantri Vridhjan Pension Yojna- This is a state run old age pension scheme in which the beneficiary would get a monthly pension of Rs. 400 whereas the beneficiary whose age is 80 years and above would get a monthly pension of Rs. 500 . The eligibility criteria for this scheme are : Minimum age to get registered in this scheme is 60 years. Aadhar Card is mandatory. Aadhar consent & Bank Account details with conset to use for DBT are mandatory.

Schemes of Social Welfare Department, Bihar Government

Projects running currently through Social Welfare Dept. include:

1. Mukhyamantri Kanya Suraksha Yojna

2. Mukhyamantri Kanya Vivah Yojna

3. Mukhyamantri Nari Shakti Yojna

4. Lakshmi Bai Social Security Pension Scheme

5. Integrated Child Development Project

6. Child Protection Unit under Youth Justice section

7. Samarthya Yojana for supply of special appliances to the Disabled Person

1. Mukhyamantri Kanya Suraksha Yojana)

With the objective to check the foeticide of a girl child, improve the sex ratio and encourage registration of birth, Government of Bihar has launched a Scheme called “Mukhya Mantri Kanya Suraksha Yojana”. Under the Mukhya Mantri Kanya Suraksha Yojana, Government of Bihar contributes Rs.2000/- for every Girl Child belonging to the BPL category and born on or after November 22, 2007.


2. बिहार की मुख्यमंत्री कन्या विवाह योजना

बिहार देश में सामाजिक और आर्थिक रूप से सबसे ज्यादा पिछड़े राज्यों में शामिल हैं. राज्य में लड़कियों की शादी कम उम्र में कर दी जाती है. इससे उनकी शिक्षा भी पूरी नहीं हो पाती है.

कम उम्र में शादी के कई खराब नतीजे होते हैं. इस समस्या को दूर करने के लिए बिहार सरकार ने खास स्कीम शुरू की है. इसका नाम 'मुख्यमंत्री कन्या विवाह योजना' है.

क्या है कन्या विवाह योजना का मकसद?
मुख्यमंत्री कन्या विवाह योजना करीब एक दशक से राज्य में चल रही है. गरीब परिवारों को कन्या विवाह योजना से काफी लाभ पहुंचा है. कन्या विवाह योजना के मुख्य रूप से दो मकसद हैं. पहला, नाबालिग लड़कियों की शादी पर रोक लगाना. दूसरा, समाज में दहेज प्रथा को खत्म करना. कन्या विवाह योजना बिहार सरकार के सामाजिक कल्याण विभाग द्वारा चलाई जाती है

क्या है कन्या विवाह योजना के लाभ?
कन्या विवाह योजना उन परिवारों के लिए है, जो गरीबी रेखा से नीचे (बीपीएल) आते हैं. ऐसे परिवार की बेटी की शादी में सरकार की तरफ से आर्थिक मदद दी जाती है.

BPL परिवार की बेटी की शादी में सरकार 5,000 रुपये की एकमुश्त रकम देती है. यह रकम लड़की के नाम चेक या डिमांड ड्राफ्ट के जरिए दी जाती है. कन्या विवाह योजना को साल 2012 में लोक सेवा के अधिकार अधिनियम में भी शामिल कर लिया गया है.


3. Mukhyamantri Nari Shakti Yojana

Mukhya Mantri Nari Shakti Yojana is a comprehensive scheme with provisions of diverse and innovative schemes aiming at the social, economic and cultural empowerment of women. The major goal of this scheme is assisting children and women affected by domestic violence besides setting up of women’s helpline, protection homes, short stay homes, Pantnagar, constitution of self-help groups, promoting inter-caste marriage, nutrition and capacity building.

Objective

For the development of children and women affected by several factors.

Economic Empowerment

Formation, Strengthening and Capacity Building of Women Self-Help Groups (SHGs)

Grant for Initial Capital Fund Formation to Block Level Cooperative Societies

Training in Service Sector

Social Empowerment Schemes

Short stay Homes

Palanaghar Scheme

Social Awareness Programme

Use of Folk Theatre

Special Community Cultural Troupe

Publications and Information Dissemination on Legal Rights and Constitutional Provisions for Women

Social Rehabilitation Fund

Cultural Empowerment

International Women’s day

Innovative Scheme


4. Lakshmi Bai Social Security Pension Scheme

As the Indira Gandhi National Widow Pension Scheme (IGNWPS) only covers widows aged 40–59, some State Governments have launched state widow pension schemes. The Lakshmi Bai Pension Yojana in Bihar covers all widows above 18 years of age whose annual family income is below 60,000 Rs.

Beneficiary:
all widows above 18 years of age whose annual family income is below 60,000 Rs

Benefits:
Monthly pension as per rule


5. Integrated Child Development Project

ICDS Scheme –

 To improve the nutritional and health status of children in the age group 0-6 years.

 To lay the foundations for proper psychological, physical and social development of the child.

 To reduce the incidence of mortality, morbidity malnutrition and school drop-out.

 To achieve effective co-ordination of policy and implementation among the various departments to promote child development.

 To enhance the capability of the mother to look after the normal health and nutrition needs through nutrition and health education.

Following six services are offered through a network of functional 80211 Anganwadi Centers spread over in 544 Projects under 38 districts of the state.

 Supplementary Nutrition.

 Pre-school education.

 Immunization.

 Health checkup.

 Referral services.

Health and Nutrition education

Universalization of ICDS:

Under universalization 10880 additional/ mini AnganwadiCentres have been sanctioned and they are in the process of implementation. Uncovered hamlets are being surveyed.


6. Child Protection Unit under Youth Justice section

 Bihar became the first state in India to have notified setting up of District Child Protection Units (DCPUs), following the appointment of Assistant Director (Social Security) as the nodal person in all the 38 districts of Bihar. Directives have been issued on their roles and responsibilities.

The Department of Social Welfare, the nodal department for implementing the JJ Act, has also conducted orientations to members on their roles and responsibilities. Supplementing the efforts of the Government of Bihar, UNICEF, in collaboration with the Department of Social Welfare (DSW), Government of Bihar, is modeling 10 DCPUs in the state.

The Juvenile Justice Act, 2000 (Amended in 2006), requires setting up of DCPUs in every district. The Integrated Child Protection Scheme (ICPS), approved by the Central Government in February 2009 also requires establishing District Child Protection Societies in the state.

An eight-day training programme was conducted for DCPU consultants by the Department of Social Welfare and UNICEF from May 11th, 2009, to May 18th 2009, wherein 40 consultants were trained on issues of child rights, protection and JJ Act. The training also included a 3-day field visit to Government-run children’s homes in Patna.

These consultants along with ADSS appointed by the Department of Social Welfare will constitute the DCPUs in 10 districts of Bihar. For the first time in the country, a district-based model for child protection is being piloted.


7. Mukhyamantri Samarthya Scheme


The Mukhyamantri Samarthya Scheme is the scheme started by the government of Bihar (Ministry of social security and empowerment) department of disability affairs for the disabled person. The scheme aims at physical, social, economic and psychological rehabilitation of individuals with disabilities. The Samarthya scheme provides financial assistance to disabled people. Under the scheme, Bihar government provide help and appliances such as tricycles, hearing aid, calipers etc. to disabled people. The primary aim of the Bihar government is to offer assistance to the needy disabled person. If applicant get any other disability scheme of which comes under state government than this applicant is not eligible to receive the benefits of the scheme

Benefits of Mukhyamantri Samarthya Scheme:

The Samarthya Scheme provides the benefits to disabled people as a financial assistance and appliances such as tricycles, hearing aid, calipers etc.

Eligibility for Mukhyamantri Samarthya Scheme:

Applicant must have physically handicapped and more than 40% disability (Certified by competent medical authority of the state governments/UT)

Applicant must have belonged to BPL families

Applicant annual income should not be more than Rs. 1 Lakh

Applicant must be a permanent resident of Bihar state

Applicant age should be in the age group of 14-60 for getting the benefits of this scheme

Prohibition

Alcohol prohibition in India is in force in the states of Bihar, Gujarat, Mizoramand Nagaland as well as in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep.

All other Indian states and union territories permit the sale of alcohol.

The directive principles of state policy (DPSP) in the constitution of India (article 47) state that "....the State shall endeavor to bring about prohibition of the consumption except for medicinal purposes of intoxicating drinks and of drugs which are injurious to health".

The Directive Principles are not-justiciable rights of the people but fundamental in the governance of the country. It shall be the duty of the State to apply these principles in making policy laws per Article 37.

Per Article 38, state and union governments, as duty, shall make further detailed policies and laws for implementation considering DPSPs as fundamental policy. In contrary to Article 37, many policies have been implemented by states and union governmens which go against the DPSPs such as using intoxicating drinks as source of major tax revenue instead of implementing prohibition for better health of people. When the union government feels that alcohol prohibition is no longer useful to the nation, it shall be deleted from DPSPs by bringing a constitutional amendment to remove ambiguity in policy making / direction. Judiciary can repeal any policy/law devised by the government which is diametrically opposite to any DPSP. An existing policy in line with DPSP can not be reversed, however it can be expanded further in line with DPSP. The policy changes applicable under DPSP shall not be reversible unless the applicable DPSP is deleted by constitutional amendment. Many states imposed prohibition of alcohol and later prohibition lifted to collect more revenue/taxes by the states.

Lifting / relaxing prohibition of alcohol is unconstitutional which is reversing the earlier implemented policy as per Article 37 as long as alcohol prohibition is part of DPSP.


Bihar Alcohol Ban

Bihar government on 2 October 2016 notified Bihar Prohibition and Excise Act, 2016. This new liquor ban could land drinkers in jail for up to 7 years with a fine of at least 1 lakh rupees.

Some provisions of the Bihar Prohibition and Excise Act, 2016

• The act creates a framework for the levy of excise duty and imposes a prohibition on alcohol in Bihar. 

• Prohibition on the manufacture, sale, storage and consumption of alcohol was imposed in Bihar earlier in 2016, by amending the Bihar Excise Act, 1915.  The Bill replaces the 1915 Act and the Bihar Prohibition Act, 1938. 

• It imposes a prohibition on the manufacture, bottling, distribution, transportation, collection, storage, possession, sale and consumption of alcohol or any other intoxicant specified by the state government.  However, it also allows the state government to renew existing licenses, or allow any state owned company to undertake any of these activities (such as manufacture, distribution, etc.).

• It calls for at least 10 years of imprisonment and a fine of at least one lakh rupees to the family members and occupants of a land or a building as offenders.




On 30 September 2016 Bihar High Court ruled that the ban is "illegal, impractical and unconstitutional".

Although even before the High Court order came, the Bihar government had announced that it would enforce a new stringent law from 2 October 2016, only to stay adamant on it after the order. The government had drafted a new law to keep from withdrawing the ban. As per the new liquor law, those found indulging in unlawful import, export, transport, manufacture, possession, sale, intoxicant or liquor could attract a minimum 10 years of jail term which may extend to imprisonment for life besides a minimum fine of Rs 1 lakh which may extend to Rs 10 lakh, says a report by Press Trust of India.

On 3 October 2016, the Bihar government approached Supreme Court of Indiachallenging the High Court order. The Supreme Court Bench headed by Chief Justice T. S. Thakur agreed to give an urgent hearing on the matter and on 7 October 2016, much to the relief of the government, the bench stayed the high court order. "Ban on liquor and fundamental rights do not go together," the SC bench said.

The bench has directed the hearing of the matter after 10 weeks. On 25 October 2016, the Bihar Government decided to renew liquor licences of canteens in cantonment areas, military and air force stations for 2016-2017 in the "interest of soldiers", The Telegraph reported.

On 21 January 2017, more than 3 crore (30 million) people of Bihar joined hands to form a historic human chain along 12,760 km of roads to support ban on alcohol in Bihar.

This unprecedented and massive human chain was supported by people from all walks of life and political parties.


Bihar Prohibition and Excise Act, 2016


The Government of Bihar introduced a new version of Bihar Prohibition and Excise Act on 2 October 2016, days after the Patna High Court quashed the previous bill, deeming it as "illegal".

The act brought in stricter measures, with all Sections in the act being non-bailable and the police being allowed to assume that manufacturing of alcohol was ongoing if utensils containing a mix of jaggery or grapes are found.

Under the law, only special courts constituted under Bihar Special Courts Act can try the cases. It also empowered authorities to confiscate properties upon whose premises liquor is either consumed or stored.

The new policy was challenged in Patna High Court a day later.

Supreme Court of India in the meanwhile stayed Patna High Court's order on quashing Bihar's ban on alcohol.

It stayed proceedings of all challenges to Bihar's new law in the Patna High Court on 2 January 2017, stating that it will itself hear all cases related to the new ban.

However, the Bihar government has introduced a amendment to the liquor law in 20 July 2018.


Bihar govt amends
Bihar Prohibition and Excise Act, 2016

More than two years after the Bihar government amended Prohibition Act, 2016 in July 2018.

People caught for the first time drinking liquor in Bihar will not be mandatorily sent to prison term. The amendment provides for a fine of Rs 50,000 for first time offenders, who can go free after paying the penalty. Earlier, the first offence under the Bihar liquor law was non-bailable.

"If someone is caught drinking he will be fined Rs 50000/- or three months in jail. If caught second time he will be fined Rs 1 lakh fine and 5 years jail.

Now house where liquor was recovered will not be seized and mass penalty provision has also been removed.

The new law removes the provision for seizing property (land, house) or vehicle if liquor is found on any premises.

Similarly, the new law does not have the provision for the arrest of all members of the family if some is found consuming alcohol inside a home.

Another provision, which calls for imposing collective fine as punishment in the case of recovery of huge quantity of liquor in an area, is being done away with.

A total of 6932 persons are in jail presently in liquor cases as on July 12, 2018. Total capacity of prisons in Bihar is 39436 and the number of people in jail right now is 39087.


Constitutional provisions that seems to be violated by the Act are:

The provisions of the Act violate Article 12 and Article 21 of the Constitution of India.

Article 14 talks of the equality before law. It protects individuals from any arbitrary actions of the state. One may argue that imposition of criminal liability on family members and owner or occupants of the building, for the action of another person is arbitrary in nature.

Article 21 talks of about the protection of life and personal liberty in which no person should be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law. The meaning of the same interpreted by the Courts is that any procedure established by law should be fair and reasonable. It needs to be examined whether presuming that family members of an offender, and owner or occupant of the building knew about the offence, and making them criminally liable, is reasonable.

The interesting fact about the Act is that it calls for at least 10 years of imprisonment. But under the Indian Penal Code, 1860 the imprisonment of at least 10 years is attracted in crimes such as use of acid to cause injury, or trafficking of a minor. Other states where a prohibition is imposed calls for a lower imprisonment terms for offences of alcohol. Gujarat calls for at least seven years and Nagaland calls for maximum three years of imprisonment





SC development Schemes

Educational Empowerment

Various scholarships are provided to the students belonging to the Scheduled Castes (SCs) to ensure that education is not denied due to the poor financial condition of their families. These Scholarships are provided at both pre-matric and post-matric levels. Scholarships are also provided to SC students for obtaining higher education in India and abroad, including premier educational institutions. The Scholarships can broadly be classified into the following three types:

Pre-Matric Scholarships : The objective of the pre-matric Scheme is to support the parents of SC children for educating their wards, so that the incidence of drop outs at this stage is minimized.

Pre-Matric Scholarship to SC Student : The objective of the pre-matric Scheme is to support the parents of SC children for educating their wards, so that the incidence of drop outs at this stage is minimized.

Pre-Matric Scholarship to the Children of those engaged in occupations involving cleaning and prone to health hazards:This is also a centrally sponsored scheme, which is implemented by the State Governments and Union Territory Administrations, which receive 100% central assistance from the Government of India for the total expenditure under the scheme, over and above their respective Committed Liability.

Post Matric Scholarship for Scheduled Caste Students (PMS-SC): The Scheme is the single largest intervention by Government of India for educational empowerment of scheduled caste students. This is a centrally sponsored scheme. 100% central assistance is released to State Governments/UTs for expenditure incurred by them under the scheme over and above their respective committed liability.

Scholarships for obtaining Higher Education and Coaching Scheme: These include:

Top Class Education for Scheduled Caste Students : The objective of the Scheme is to promote qualitative education amongst students belonging to Scheduled Castes, by providing full financial support for pursuing studies beyond 12th class, in notified institutes of excellence like IITs, NITs, IIMs, reputed Medical/Law and other institutions. Scholarship is awarded to the eligible SC students on securing admission in any of the institutions notified by the Ministry.

National Fellowship: The Scheme provides financial assistance to SC students for pursuing research studies leading to M.Phil, Ph.D and equivalent research degrees.

National Overseas Scholarship: The Scheme provides assistance to students belonging to SCs, de-notified, nomadic, semi-nomadic tribes etc for pursuing higher studies of Master level courses and PhD programmes abroad.

Free Coaching for SC and OBC Students: The objective of the Scheme is to provide coaching of good quality for economically disadvantaged SC and OBC candidates to enable them to appear in competitive examinations and succeed in obtaining an appropriate job in Public/Private sector. The Scheme provides central assistance to institutions/centres run by the Central/State Governments/UT Administrations, Central/ State Universities, PSUs, Registered Private Institutions, NGOs, etc. Coaching is provided for Group 'A' & 'B' examinations conducted by the UPSC, SSC, various Railway Recruitment Boards and State PSCs; Officers’ Grade examinations conducted by Banks, Insurance Companies and PSUs; and Premier Entrance examinations for admission in Engineering, Medical and Professional courses like Management, Law etc.

Economic Empowerment:

National Scheduled Castes Finance and Development Corporation (NSFDC): Set up under the Ministry, to finance income generating activities of Scheduled Caste beneficiaries living below double the poverty line limits (presently Rs 98,000/- per annum for rural areas and Rs 1,20,000/- per annum for urban areas). NSFDC assists the target group by way of refinancing loans, skill training, Entrepreneurship Development Programmes and providing marketing support through State Channelizing Agencies, RRBs, Public Sector Bank and Other Institutions

National Safai Karamcharis Finance and Development Corporation (NSKFDC): It is another corporation under the Ministry which provides credit facilities to beneficiaries amongst Safai Karamcharis, manual scavengers and their dependants for income generating activities for socio-economic development through State Channelizing Agencies

Special Central Assistance (SCA) to Scheduled Castes Sub-Plan (SCSP): It is a policy initiative for development of Scheduled Castes in which 100 % assistance is given as an additive to SCSP of the States/ UTs on the basis of certain criteria such as SC population of the States/UTs, relative backwardness of States/UTs, percentage of SC families in the States/ UTs covered by composite economic development programmes in the State Plan to enable them to cross the poverty line, etc. It is an umbrella strategy to ensure flow of targeted financial and physical benefits from all the general sectors of development for the benefit of Scheduled Castes. Under this Scheme, the States /UTs are required to formulate and implement Special Component Plan (SCP) for Scheduled Castes as part of their annual plans by earmarking resources

Scheme of Assistance to Scheduled Castes Development Corporations (SCDCs): Share Capital contribution is released to the State Scheduled Castes Development Corporations (SCDCs) under a Centrally Sponsored Scheme in the ratio of 49:51 between Central Government and State Governments. There are in total 27 such State-level Corporations which are working for the economic development of Scheduled Castes, although some of these Corporations are also catering to the requirements of other weaker sections of the Society, e.g. Scheduled Tribes, OBCs, Minorities etc. The main functions of SCDCs include identification of eligible SC families and motivating them to undertake economic development schemes, sponsoring the schemes to financial institutions for credit support, providing financial assistance in the form of the margin money at a low rate of interest, providing subsidy out of the funds made available to the States under the Scheme of Special Central Assistance to Scheduled Castes Sub Plan of the States to reduce the repayment liability and providing necessary tie up with other poverty alleviation programmes. The SCDCs are playing an important role in providing credit and missing inputs by way of margin money loans and subsidy to the target group. The SCDCs finance the employment oriented schemes covering diverse areas of economic activities which inter-alia include (i) agriculture and allied activities including minor irrigation (ii) small scale industry (iii) transport and (iv) trade and service sector

Venture Capital Fund for Scheduled Castes:The objective of the fund is to promote entrepreneurship amongst the Scheduled Castes who are oriented towards innovation and growth technologies and to provide concessional finance to the scheduled caste entrepreneurs. The fund has been launched on 16.01.2015. During 2014-15, Rs.200 Crore were released initially for the Fund to IFCI Limited, which is a Nodal agency to implement it

Credit Enhancement Guarantee Scheme for Scheduled Castes: The objective of this Scheme is to provide credit guarantee facility to Young and start-up entrepreneurs, belonging to Scheduled Castes, who aspire to be part of neo middle class category, with an objective to encourage entrepreneurship in the lower strata of the Society resulting in job creation besides creating confidence in Scheduled Castes. The Scheme has been launched on 06.05.2015. Initially, Rs.200 Crore has been released under the Scheme to IFCI Limited, which is a Nodal agency to implement it.

Social Empowerment

The Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955: In pursuance of Article 17 of the Constitution of India, the Untouchability (Offences) Act, 1955 was enacted and notified on 08.05.1955. Subsequently, it was amended and renamed in the year 1976 as the "Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955". Rules under this Act, viz “The Protection of Civil Rights Rules, 1977” were notified in 1977. The Act extends to the whole of India and provides punishment for the practice of untouchability. It is implemented by the respective State Governments and Union Territory Administrations. Assistance is provided to States/ UTs for implementation of Protection of Civil Rights Act, 1955.

Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989:Assistance is provided to States/ UTs for implementation of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989. Financial assistance is provided to the States/ UTs for implementation of these Acts, by way of relief to atrocity victims, incentive for inter-caste marriages, awareness generation, setting up of exclusive Special courts, etc. Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Act, 2015 (No. 1 of 2016) was notified in the Gazette of India (Extraordinary) on 01.01.2016. The Amended Act came into force w.e.f 26.01.2016.

Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Rules, 1995: PoA Rules were amended in June 2014 for enhancing the relief amount to the victims of atrocities to become between Rs.75,000/- to Rs. 7,50,000/- depending upon the nature of an offence. Further Amendment done in the Principal Rules namely the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Rules, 1995 by the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Amendment Rules, 2016 have been notified in the Gazette of India Extraordinary on 14th April, 2016.

The ‘Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013’ (MS Act, 2013): Eradication of dry latrines and manual scavenging and rehabilitation of manual scavengers in alternative occupation has been an area of high priority for the Government. Towards this end, a multi-pronged strategy was followed, consisting of the following legislative as well as programmatic interventions:

Enactment of “Employment of Manual Scavengers and Construction of Dry Latrines (Prohibition) Act, 1993(1993 Act);”

Integrated Low Cost Sanitation (ILCS) Scheme for conversion of dry latrines into sanitary latrines in urban areas; and

Launching of National Scheme for Liberation and Rehabilitation of Scavengers (NSLRS).

Self Employment Scheme for Rehabilitation of Manual Scavengers.

In spite of the above measures taken by the Government, manual scavenging continued to exist which became evident with the release of 2011 the Census data indicating existence of more than 26 lakh insanitary latrines in the country. Therefore, Government decided to enact another law to cover all types of insanitary latrines and situations which give occasion for manual scavenging. The ‘Prohibition of Employment as Manual Scavengers and their Rehabilitation Act, 2013’ (MS Act, 2013) was passed by the Parliament in September, 2013 and has come into force from 6th December, 2013. This Act intends to, inter alia, achieve its objectives to:

Identify and eliminate the insanitary latrines.

Prohibit:- i) Employment as Manual Scavengers and ii) Hazardous manual cleaning of sewer and septic tanks

Identify and rehabilitate the manual scavengers.

Other Schemes:

Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana (PMAGY): The Centrally Sponsored Pilot Scheme ‘Pradhan Mantri Adarsh Gram Yojana’ (PMAGY) is being implemented for integrated development of Scheduled Castes (SC) majority villages having SC Population concentration > 50%. Initially the scheme was launched in 1000 villages in 5 States viz. Assam, Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu. The Scheme was further revised w.e.f. 22.01.2015 and extended to 1500 SC majority villages in Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Telangana, Haryana, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Uttarakhand, West Bengal and Odisha. The principal objective of the Scheme is integrated development of SC Majority Villages:

Primarily through convergent implementation of the relevant Central and State Schemes;

By providing these villages Central Assistance in form of gap-filling funds to the extent of Rs.20.00 lakh per village, to be increased by another 5 lakh if State make a matching contribution.

By providing gap-filling component to take up activities which do not get covered under the existing Central and State Government Schemes are to be taken up under the component of ‘gap filling’.

Babu Jagjivan Ram Chhatrawas Yojna: The primary objective of the Scheme is to attract implementing agencies for undertaking hostel construction programme with a view to provide hostel facilities to SC boys and girls studying in middle schools, higher secondary schools, colleges and universities. The Scheme provides central assistance to State Governments/ UT Administrations, Central & State Universities/ Institutions for fresh construction of hostel buildings and for expansion of the existing hostel facilities. The NGOs and Deemed Universities in private sector are eligible for central assistance only for expansion of their existing hostels facilities.

Upgradation of Merit of SC Students: The objective of the Scheme is to upgrade the merit of Scheduled Caste students studying in Class IX to XII by providing them with facilities for education in residential /non-residential schools. Central assistance is released to the State Governments/UT Administrations for arranging remedial and special coaching for Scheduled Caste students. While remedial coaching aims at removing deficiencies in school subjects, special coaching is provided with a view to prepare students for competitive examinations for entry into professional courses like Engineering and Medical.

Dr. Ambedkar Foundation: Dr. Ambedkar Foundation was set up on 24th March 1992, as a registered body, under the Registration of Societies Act, 1860, under the aegis of the Minsitry of Welfare, Government of India. The primary object of setting up of the Foundation is to promote Dr. Ambedkar’s ideology and philosophy and also to administer some of the schemes which emanated from the Centenary Celebration Committee’s recommendations.

Dr. Ambedkar International Centre at Janpath, New Delhi: Setting up of ‘Dr. Ambedkar National Public Library’ now renamed as ‘Dr. Ambedkar International Centre’ at Janpath New Delhi was one of the important decisions taken by the Centenary Celebrations Committee (CCC) of Babasaheb Dr. B.R. Ambedkar headed by the then Hon’ble Prime Minister of India. As on date the entire land of Plot ‘A’ at Janpath, New Delhi measuring 3.25 acre is in possession of the M/o SJ&E for setting up of the ‘Centre’. The responsibility of the construction of the ‘Centre’ has been assigned to National Building Construction Corporation (NBCC) at a cost of Rs. 195.00 crore. The Hon'ble Prime Minister has laid the foundation of Dr. Ambedkar International Centre on 20th April, 2015 and has announced that the project will be completed within a period of twenty months. The National Building Construction Company (NBCC), the executing agency has already started the construction work at site and it is at an advance stage.

Dr. Ambedkar National Memorial at 26, Alipur Road, Delhi: The Dr. Ambedkar Mahaparinirvan Sthal at 26, Alipur Road, Delhi, was dedicated to the Nation by the then Hon’ble Prime Minister of India on 02.12.2003 and he had also inaugurated the development work at the Memorial at 26, Alipur Road, Delhi. The responsibility of the construction of Dr. Ambedkar National Memorial has been assigned to the Central Public Works Department (CPWD) at an approx. cost of Rs. 99.00 Crore. The Hon'ble Prime Minister has laid the foundation of the Memorial on 21st March, 2016 and has announced that the project will be completed within a period of twenty months. The CPWD, the executing agency has already started the construction work at site.

Babu Jagjivan Ram National Foundation: The Babu Jagjivan Ram National Foundation was established by the Government of India as an autonomous organization under the Ministry of Social Justice & Empowerment and registered under The Societies Registration Act, 1860 on 14th March 2008. The main aim of the Foundation is to propagate the ideals of the late Babu Jagjivan Ram, on social reform as well as his ideology, philosophy of life, mission and vision to create a casteless and classless society.

ST Welfare :

1. Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Scheme (SCA to TSS)

Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Scheme (SCA to TSS)is 100% grant from Government of India  (since 1977-78). It is charged to Consolidated Fund of India (except grants for North Eastern States, a voted item) and is an additive to State Plan funds and efforts for Tribal Development.

This grant is utilized for economic development of Integrated Tribal Development Project (ITDP), Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA), Modified Area Development Approach (MADA), Clusters, Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs) and dispersed tribal population.

SCA to TSS covers 23 States.

2. Grants-in-aid under Article 275(1) of the Constitution:

Grants-in-aid under Proviso to Article 275(1) of Constitution of India is 100% annual grant from Government of India to States. It is charged to Consolidated Fund of India (except grants for NE States, a voted item) and is an additive to State Plan funds and efforts for Tribal Development.

Grant is provided to 27 States.

Funds are utilised for the socio economic development of ITDA, MADA, Clusters and for PVTGs.

 
3. Development of Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups (PVTGs):

The scheme of Development of PVTGs covers 75 identified PVTGs in 18 States and UT of Andaman & Nicobar Islands for the activities like housing, land distribution, land development, agricultural development, animal husbandry, construction of link roads, installation of non-conventional sources of energy for lighting purpose, social security including JanashreeBima Yojana or any other innovative activity meant for the comprehensive socio-economic development of PVTGs.

4. Institutional Support for Development & Marketing of Tribal Products / Produce (Central Sector Scheme) :

Under the scheme, Grants-in-aid are released to State Tribal Development Cooperative Corporations (STDCCs) and Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India Ltd. (TRIFED) which is a multi-State Cooperative under Ministry of Tribal Affairs (MoTA).

 The objective of the Scheme is to create institutions for the Scheduled Tribes to support marketing and development of activities they depend on for their livelihood. 

These are sought to be achieved by specific measures like (i) market intervention; (ii) training and skill up-gradation of tribal Artisans, Craftsmen, Minor Forest Produce (MFP) gatherers etc.; (iii) R&D/IPR activity; and (iv) Supply chain infrastructure development.

5. Mechanism for Marketing of Minor Forest Produce (MFP) through Minimum Support Price (MSP) and Development of Value Chain for MFP’ as a measure of social safety for MFP gatherers (Centrally Sponsored Scheme)         

This Ministry has introduced from the year 2013-14, a centrally sponsored scheme of ‘Mechanism for marketing of Minor Forest Produce (MFP) through Minimum Support Price (MSP) and Development of Value Chain for MFP’ as a measure of social safety for MFP gatherers who are primarily member of Scheduled Tribesand other traditional forest dwellers whose very livelihood depends on collection and selling of MFP.

The scheme seeks to establish a system to ensure fair monetary returns for their efforts in collection, primary processing, storage, packaging, transportation etc. It also seeks to get them a share of revenue from the sales proceeds with cost deducted. It also aims to address other issues for sustainability of process.

The scheme envisages fixation and declaration of Minimum Support Price for the selected MFP. Procurement & Marketing operation at pre fixed MSP will be undertaken by the designated State Agencies. Simultaneously, other medium &long term issues like sustainable collection, value addition, infrastructure development, knowledge base expansion of MFP, market intelligence development, strengthening the bargaining power of Gram Sabha/ Panchayat will also be addressed.

 
6. Support to National Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporation (NSTFDC)/State Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporations (STFDCs):

NSTFDC a fully owned Public Sector Enterprise of Government of India, is provided with 100% equity share capital contribution by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs.  The authorized share capital of the Corporation is Rs. 750.00 crore.  The paid up Share capital is Rs 599.11 crore (as on 31.12.2017). 

The main objectives of NSTFDC are:-

To identify economic activities of importance to the Scheduled Tribes so as to generate self-employment and raise their income level.

To upgrade their skills and processes through both institutional and on the job training.
!
To make existing State/ UT Scheduled Tribes Finance and Development Corporations (SCAs) and other developmental agencies engaged in economic development of the Scheduled Tribes more effective.

To assist SCAs in project formulation, implementation of NSTFDC assisted schemes and in imparting training to their personnel.

To monitor implementation of NSTFDC assisted schemes in order to assess their impact.

7. PRE-MATRIC SCHOLARSHIPS TO ST STUDENTS (Class IX and X)


Applicable to students who are studying in Classes IX–X. Parental income from all sources should be less than Rs.2.00 lakhs per annum, which is proposed to be revised to Rs.2.50 lakhs per annum.Scholarships are paid @ Rs.150/- per month for Day Scholars and @Rs.350/- per month for Hostellers, for a period of 10 months in a year. This is proposed to be revised from existing Rs.150/- to Rs.225/- p.m. for Day Scholars, and from Rs.350/- to  Rs.525/- p.m. for Hostellers.Central assistance in the share of 75:25 (90:10 for NER and Hilly States) to State Governments/UT Administrations is available from the Government of India.Scholarship is distributed through the State Government/UT Administration.

8. POST MATRIC SCHOLARSHIPS TO ST Students (Class XI and above)

Applicable to students who are studying in any recognized course from a recognized institution for which qualification is Matriculation/Class X or above.

Parental income from all sources should be less than Rs.2.50 lakhs per annum.

Compulsory fees charged by educational institutions are reimbursed subject to the limit fixed by the concerned State Fee fixation committee and scholarship amount of Rs.230 to Rs.1200 per month, depending upon the course of study is paid.

Central assistance in the share of 75:25 (90:10 for NER and Hilly States) to State Governments/UT Administrations is available from the Government of India.

9. NATIONAL OVERSEAS SCHOLARSHIPS (NOS) for ST students for studying abroad

Provides financial assistance to selected students to pursue Post Graduation, Ph.D& Post-Doctoral study abroad.

A total of 20 awards are given every year. Of these, 17 awards are for STs and 3 awards for students belonging to Particularly Vulnerable Tribal Groups.

Parental/family income from all sources should not exceed Rs.6.00 lakhs per annum.

Annual maintenance allowance of £9900/-, annual contingency & Eqpt. allowance of £1116/-, tuition fees as per actuals and other admissible fees are provided for candidates in United Kingdom.

For candidates in USA, annual maintenance allowance of $15400/-, annual contingency & equipment. allowance of $1532/-, tuition fees as per actuals and other admissible fees are provided.  For candidates in other countries, US dollar or equivalent rate would be applicable.

Disbursement of scholarships through the Ministry of External Affairs/ Indian Missions abroad.

10. SCHOLARSHIP FOR HIGHER EDUCATION (earlier known as Top Class Education) For ST students.

Scholarship is given to ST students for pursuing studies in prescribed courses in any of the 246 institutes of excellence across the country like IITs, AIIMS, IIMs, NIITs, etc. identified by the Ministry.

Total number of scholarships is 1000 per year.

Family income from all sources does not exceed Rs.6.00 lakhs per annum.

Scholarship amount includes tuition fees, living expenses and allowances for books and computer.

11. FELLOWSHIP (earlier known as RGNF) SCHEME FOR ST STUDENTS).

750 fellowships are provided to ST students each year for pursing higher studies in India for MPhil and PhD. 

Fellowship is granted as per UGC norms, @Rs.25,000/- for JRF and @Rs.28,000/- for SRF.

12. Scheme of Strengthening Education among ST Girls in Low Literacy Districts

The primary objective of this Central Sector Scheme is promotion of education among tribal girls in the identified low literacy districts of the country. The schemeaims to improve the socio-economic status of the poor and illiterate tribal population through the education of women. The Scheme has been revised with effect from 1.4.2008. Now it is-being implemented in 54 identified low literacy districts where ST Population is 25% or more and ST female literacy rate is below 35% as per 2001 census. The Scheme aims to bridge the gap in literacy levels between the general female population and tribal women and is meant exclusively for ST Girls. The educational complexes are established in rural areas of identified districts and have classes I to V with a provision for up gradation up to class Xll, provided there is sufficient accommodation for classrooms, hostel, a kitchen, gardening and for sports facilities. The educational complexes impart not only formal education to tribal girls but also train the students in agriculture, animal husbandry, other vocations and crafts to make them economically strong.

13. Scheme of Grant-in-aid to voluntary organizations working for the welfare of Scheduled Tribes

The Scheme was launched in 1953-54 and was last revised w.e.f. 1stApril 2008. The prime objective of the scheme is to enhance the reach of welfare schemes of Government and fill the gaps in service deficient tribal areas, in the sectors such as education, health, drinking water, agro-horticultural productivity, social security net etc. through the efforts of voluntary organizations, and to provide favourable environment for socio-economic upliftment and overall development of the Scheduled Tribes (STs). Any other innovative activity having direct positive impact on the socio-economic development or livelihood generation of STs may also be considered through voluntary efforts. The scheme is Central Sector Scheme. The grants are provided to the non-governmental organizations on application, in a prescribed format, duly recommended by the multi-disciplinary State Level Committee of the concerned State Government / UT Administration. Funds are generally provided to the extent of 90% by the Government. The voluntary organization is expected to bear the remaining 10% balance from its own resources.

14. Vocational Training in Tribal Areas

The main aim of the Scheme is to develop the skills of the ST youth for a variety of jobs as well as selfemployment and to improve their socio-economic condition by enhancing their income.

The scheme covers allthe State and Union Territories. lt is not an area-specific scheme, the condition being thatfree vocational training facilities are extended only to tribal youth.


15. Support to Tribal Research Institutes (TRIs) and Tribal Festivals, Research Information and Mass Education :

In the schemes, the focus of the Ministry is to preserve and promote tribal culture and dissemination of information. To preserve tribal art and culture, financial assistance is provided to TRI’s to carry out various activities to preserve and promote tribal culture and heritage across the country through research and documentation, maintenance and preservation of art & artefacts, setting up of tribal museum, exchange visits for the tribals to other parts of the State, organizing tribal festivals etc.

Funding under this Scheme is 100% grant-in-aid by the Ministry of Tribal Affairs to the TRIs on need basis with the approval of APEX Committee. TRIs would be responsible to prepare proposal and detailed action plan for the year alongwith budgetary requirement and submit it to the Ministry through State Tribal Welfare Department.

Women Welfare Programmes

1. Mahila E-haat
The Ministry of Women & Child Development launched “Mahila E-Haat” a
bilingual portal on 7th March, 2016.

This is a unique direct online marketing platform
leveraging technology for supporting women entrepreneurs/SHGs/ NGOs for
showcasing the products / services which are made/manufactured/ undertaken by
them.

It is an initiative for meeting aspirations and needs of women. This was done
keeping in mind that technology is a critical component for business efficiency and to
make it available to the majority of Indian women entrepreneurs / SHGs / NGOs.

The USP of this online marketing platform are:
- Facilitating direct contact between the vendors and buyers, as by displaying
their contact number, address as also the basic cost of products/ services.
- Aadhar number is to be filled in mandatorily in the join us form, as a measure
of id and for the payments to be received.
- For understanding how cash-less / digital transaction can be undertaken
“Step by step instructions for various modes of payment: UPI, Wallets, PoS,
and SMS banking (USSD)” is uploaded along with BHIM App information on
the portal.
- Women need to be majorly involved in the value chain and have to be 18
years of age to display their products/ services. No illegal or contraband
goods can be displayed. The vendors allowed to price their products and
charge accordingly from the buyers.
- Being web based, it has unlimited reach and it is also very simple to join
Mahila E-haat i.e. through the portal itself as the entire business of E-haat
can be handled through a mobile. The vendor can be approached by the
buyer physically, telephonically, by email, etc.


2. Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao:
See - Child Welfare Programmes

3. One Stop Centre Scheme

Popularly known as 'Sakhi,' it was implemented on 1st April 2015 with the 'Nirbhaya' fund. The One Stop Centres are established at various locations in India for providing shelter, police desk, legal, medical and counselling services to victims of violence under one roof integrated with a 24-hour Helpline.

The toll-free helpline number is 181.

Here is a list of Sakhi centres across the country.

These centres can be contacted for:

Emergency Response and Rescue Services; Medical assistance; Assistance in lodging FIR /NCR/DIR; Psycho - social support/ counselling; Legal aid and counselling; and Shelter

Video Conferencing Facility to record statement for police/ courts

4. Working Women Hostels

The objective of the scheme is to promote the availability of safe and conveniently located accommodation for working women, with daycare facility for their children, wherever possible, in urban, semi-urban, or even rural areas where employment opportunity for women exist.

5. Swadhar Greh

The Swadhar scheme was launched by the Union Ministry of Women and Child Development in 2002 for rehabilitation of women in difficult circumstances.

The scheme provides shelter, food, clothing and care to the marginalized women/girls who are in need. The beneficiaries include widows deserted by their families and relatives, women prisoners released from jail and without family support, women survivors of natural disasters, women victims of terrorist/extremist violence etc.

The implementing agencies are mainly NGOs.

6. STEP

The Support to Training and Employment Programme for Women (STEP) Scheme aims to provide skills that give employability to women and to provide competencies and skill that enable women to become self-employed/ entrepreneurs.

A particular project will be for a duration of up to 5 years depending upon the nature, kind of
activities and the number of beneficiaries to be undertaken.

Sectors include Agriculture, Horticulture, Food Processing, Handlooms, Tailoring, Stitching, Embroidery, Zari etc, Handicrafts, Computer & IT enable services along with soft skills and skills for the workplace such as spoken English, Gems & Jewellery, Travel & Tourism, Hospitality, etc.

7. Nari Shakti Puruskars

The Nari Shakti Puruskars are national level awards recognizing the efforts made by women and institutions in rendering distinguished services for the cause of women, especially vulnerable and marginalized women.

The awards are presented by the President of India every year on 8 March, International Women's Day at Rashtrapati Bhavan in New Delhi.

8. Ujjawala

A Comprehensive Scheme for Prevention of Trafficking and Rescue, Rehabilitation and Re-integration of
Victims of Trafficking for Commercial Sexual Exploitation

Objectives-
- To prevent trafficking of women and children for commercial sexual exploitation
through social mobilization and involvement of local communities, awareness
generation programmes, generate public discourse through workshops/seminars
and such events and any other innovative activity.
- To facilitate rescue of victims from the place of their exploitation and place them in
safe custody.
- To provide rehabilitation services both immediate and long-term to the victims by
providing basic amenities/needs such as shelter, food, clothing, medical treatment
including counselling, legal aid and guidance and vocational training.
-To facilitate reintegration of the victims into the family and society at large
- To facilitate repatriation of cross-border victims to their country of origin.

9. Mahila Police Volenteers

To increase the visibility of women in the police force, Home Ministry has
carried forward the initiative to give 33% reservation to women in police force by
implementing it in UTs and propagating in the States.

There has been an increasing
emphasis on gender sensitivity of police force through training programmes, performance
appraisal, women police stations to tackle crime against women.

10. Nirbhaya Fund

Following the tragedy of December 2012, the Government has set up
a dedicated fund – Nirbhaya Fund – which can be utilized for projects specifically designed to
improve the safety and security of women. It is a non-lapsable corpus fund, being administered
by Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance.

Ministry of
Women and Child Development (MWCD) is the nodal Ministry to appraise/recommend
proposals and schemes to be funded under Nirbhaya Fund. MWCD further has the
responsibility to review and monitor the progress of sanctioned schemes in conjunction with
the line Ministries/Departments.

Features-

The proposed projects under the Nirbhaya Fund should have the following features:

- Direct impact on safety and security concerns of women
- Optimum use of existing infrastructure
- Innovative use of technology
- No duplication of existing government schemes/programmes
- Provision for real time intervention as far as possible. E.g. in case of CCTVs for women’s
safety, there should be real-time monitoring of footage and quick response, rather than just
a recording of events for evidence after the incident has occurred
- Strict privacy and confidentiality of women’s identity and information. E.g. placement of
CCTVs so as to not compromise women’s privacy, protection of video data collected etc.


11. Mahila Shakti Kendra Scheme

Government of India has approved a new scheme namely, Mahila
Shakti Kendra for implementation during 2017-18 upto 2019-20 to
empower rural women through community participation and to
create an environment in which they realize their full potential.

It
will provide an interface for rural women to approach the
government for availing their entitlements also empowering them
through training and capacity building.

Community engagement through College Student Volunteers is
envisioned in 115 most backward districts as part of the MSK
Block level initiatives. Student volunteers will play an instrumental
role in awareness generation regarding various important
government schemes/ programmes as well as social issue and
association with NSS/NCC cadre students will also be an option.
The scheme at the block level will provide an opportunity to
Student Volunteers to participate in the development process by
bringing change in their own communities and ensuring that women are not left behind and are equal partners in India’s
progress.

Welfare of children


 1 Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS), 1975

It is aimed at enhancing the health, nutrition and learning opportunities of infants, young children (O-6 years) and their mothers. 

 2. Creche Scheme for the children of working mothers, 2006

Overall development of children, childhood protection, complete immunisation, awareness generation among parents on malnutrition, health and education. 

3 Reproductive and Child Health Programme, 1951

To provide quality Integrated and sustainable Primary Health Care services to the women in the reproductive age group and young children and special focus on family planning and Immunisation. 

4 Pulse Polio Immunization Programme 
 Launched on 1995
to eradicate poliomyelitis (polio) in India by vaccinating all children under the age of five years against polio virus. 

5. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan 

Launched in 2001 for all children in school, Education Guarantee Centre, Alternate School, ' Back-to-School' camp by 2003; all children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007 ; all children complete eight years of elementary schooling by 2010 ; focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life ; bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010 ; universal retention by 2010 

6 Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya 

Lanched n 2004 to ensure access and quality education to the girls of disadvantaged groups of society by setting up residential schools with boarding facilities at elementary level. 


7 Mid-day meal Scheme,  1995

Improving the nutritional status of children in classes I – VIII in Government, Local Body and Government aided schools, and EGS and AIE centres.Encouraging poor children, belonging to disadvantaged sections, to attend school more regularly and help them concentrate on classroom activities.
Providing nutritional support to children of primary stage in drought-affected areas during summer vacation.

 8 Integrated programme for Street Children  - 1993

Provisions for shelter, nutrition, health care, sanitation and hygiene, safe drinking water, education and recreational facilities and protection against abuse and exploitation to destitute and neglected street children.

 9 The National Rural Health Mission, 2005

Reduction in child and maternal mortality, universal access to public services for food and nutrition , sanitation and hygiene and universal access to public health care services with emphasis on services addressing women's and children's health universal immunization, etc.

10. Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao Yojana

This programme was launched by PM Narendra Modi on 22 January 2015 in Panipat, Haryana. It is a very significant programme and campaign because of country’s poor record on women related indicators such as child sex ratio, female infanticide, female foeticide and female education etc; especially alarming is the data for child sex ratio i.e. the sex ratio of children 0 to 6 years. The census data of the year 2011 shows child sex ratio at 918 which is lesser than the previous census (2001) data of 927. Thus, child sex ratio (0-6 years) is showing a declining trend which is not a very healthy sign for social development of India.

Therefore, ‘Beti Bacha Beti Padhao’ campaign is one of the most important programmes being initiated by the new Government. The main features of the programme are as follows:

This initiative is a joint venture of three ministries of the central government, viz. Ministry of Women and Child Development, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare and Ministry of Human Resource Development.

According to the Government, the campaign has three main objectives:

Prevention of gender based sex selective elimination.

Ensuring survival and protection of girl child.

Ensuring education and participation of the girl child.

The long term objective of the programme is to build an environment of gender equality in the country through creation of employment opportunities, safety and security, mobility and speedy justice for women.

This scheme or programme will be first implemented in 100 chosen districts of the country which are gender critical i.e. where child sex ratio is at alarming point.

There are eight monitorable targets for the programme which are as follows:

To improve sex ratio at birth by 10 points in a year in the chosen 100 districts.

In case of Under Five Child Mortality, reduction in gender differentials from 8 points in 2011 to 4 points in 2017.

To improve the nutrition level of girls by reducing the numbers of underweight and anemic girls below 5 years of age.

By utilizing ICDS NRHM Mother Child Protection Cards, ensuring universalization of ICDS; attendance and equal care of girls.

To increase the enrollment of girls in secondary education from 76% in 2013-14 to 79% in 2017.

To ensure and promote a protective environment for girls through stricter implementation of Protection of Children from Sexual Offenses (POCSO) Act 2012.

To ensure toilet for girls in every school by the year 2017.

To train Elected Representatives/ Grassroot Functionaries as community champions to mobilize communities to improve child sex ration and promote girls’ education.

The Government has appointed cine actress Madhuri Dixit as brand ambassador of the campaign.

PM Narendra Modi, in his speech, has asked the people of the country to follow several practices such as rejoicing the birth of a girl child; celebrating National Girls Child Day; and to shed away the archaic idea of considering a girl child as ‘Paraya Dhan’ etc.


11. Sukanya Samridhi Yojana (Girl Child Prosperity Scheme)


This scheme was launched by the Government of India on 22 January 2015. This scheme is also a part of Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao. It encourages parents with girl child to set up a fund for them which will take care of their marriage and future education expenses. This saving scheme provided tax benefits and an interest rate of 8.5% from October 2017 to December 2017. The account can be opened at any commercial bank’s branch or an India Post office.




Wednesday, 29th May 2019, 02:55:39 AM

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