History of Indian Banking System


Ajit Kumar AJIT KUMARWISDOM IAS, New Delhi.

The first bank in India, called The General Bank of India was established in the year 1786. The East India Company established The Bank of Bengal/Calcutta (1809), Bank of Bombay (1840) and Bank of Madras (1843). The next bank was Bank of Hindustan which was established in 1870. These three individual units (Bank of Calcutta, Bank of Bombay, and Bank of Madras) were called as Presidency
Banks.


Allahabad Bank which was established in 1865, was for the first time completely run by Indians. Punjab National Bank Ltd. was set up in 1894 with head quarters at Lahore.

Between 1906 and 1913, Bank of India, Central Bank of India, Bank of Baroda, Canara Bank, Indian Bank, and Bank of Mysore were set up. In 1921, all presidency banks were amalgamated to 22 form the Imperial Bank of India which was run by European Shareholders. After that the Reserve Bank of India was established in April 1935. At the time of first phase the growth of banking sector was very slow.

Between 1913 and 1948 there were approximately 1100 small banks in India. To streamline the functioning and activities of commercial banks, the Government of India came up with the Banking Companies Act, 1949 which was later changed to Banking Regulation Act 1949 as per amending Act of 1965. Reserve Bank of India was vested with extensive powers for the supervision of banking in India as a Central Banking Authority. After independence, Government has taken most important steps in regard of Indian Banking Sector reforms.

Banking Regulation Act, 1949, Section 5(c), defines bank as "a banking company which transacts the business of banking in India.' Further, Section 5(b) of the BR Act defines banking as, 'accepting, for the purpose of lending or investment, of deposits of money from the public, repayable on demand or otherwise, and withdrawable, by cheque, draft, and order or otherwise.'

Nationalisation

In 1955, the Imperial Bank of India was nationalized and was given the name "State Bank of India", to act as the principal agent of RBI and to handle banking transactions all over the country. It was established under State Bank of India Act, 1955. Seven banks forming subsidiary of State Bank of India was nationalized in 1960. On 19th July, 1969, major process of nationalization was carried out. At the same time 14 major Indian commercial banks of the country were nationalized. In 1980, another six banks were nationalized, and thus raising the number of nationalized banks to 20. Seven more banks were nationalized with deposits over 200 Crores. Till the year 1980 approximately 80% of the banking segment in India was under government’s ownership. On the suggestions of Narsimhan Committee, the Banking Regulation Act was amended in 1993 and thus the gates for the new private sector banks were opened.

New phase of Indian banking system, with periodic reforms after 1991: This phase is the most important as it introduced many more products and facilities in the banking sector as a part of the reforming process. In 1991, under the chairmanship of M. Narasimham, a committee was set up, which worked for the liberalization of banking practices. The result of committee’s efforts are quite evident as now, the entire country is flooded with foreign banks and their ATM stations. Now all the banks are more concerned to give a satisfactory service to customers in comparison to the previous times. With the emergence of phone banking and net banking, the entire system has become more convenient and swift. Now time is given more importance in all money transactions.
The policy came to known as New Generation tech-savvy banks, and included Global Trust Bank (the first of such new generation banks to be set up), which later on merged with Oriental Bank of Commerce, Axis Bank (earlier as UTI Bank), ICICI Bank and HDFC Bank.

The following are the major steps taken by the Government of India to Regulate Banking institutions in the country:-
1949 : Enactment of Banking Regulation Act.
1955 : Nationalisation of State Bank of India.
1959 : Nationalization of SBI subsidiaries.
1961 : Insurance cover extended to deposits.
1969 : Nationalisation of 14 major Banks.
1971 : Creation of credit guarantee corporation.
1975 : Creation of regional rural banks.
1980 : Nationalisation of six banks with deposits over 200 Crores.
1991: Liberalisation of banking sector.


Sunday, 10th Apr 2016, 12:43:34 AM

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