Formation of Words


Ajit Kumar AJIT KUMARWISDOM IAS, New Delhi.

                                          Kinds of Words
 
Primary Words
Words that are not derived or compounded or developed from other words are
called Primary Words. They belong to the original stock of words in the language; as sing, food, cut etc
 
Compound Words
Compound Words, formed by joining two or more simple words; as, Moonlight,
nevertheless, undertake, man-of-war.
 
Primary Derivatives
Primary Derivatives, formed by making some change in the body of the simple word;
as, Bond from bind, breach from break, wrong from wring.
Note:- The most important class of words formed by internal change consists of the Past
Tenses of Primary Verbs, which are not usually classed as Derivatives.
 
Secondary Derivatives
Secondary Derivatives, formed by an addition to the beginning or the end; as,
unhappy; goodness.
 
An addition to the beginning of a word is a Prefix, an addition to he end is a Suffix.
 
(I) COMPOUND WORDS
Compound words are, for the most part, Nouns, Adjectives and Verbs.
 
                                           
Formation of Words

Compound Nouns may be formed from:-
 
(1) Noun + Noun ; as,
Moonlight, chess-board, armchair, postman, railway, airman, manservant, fire-escape,
jailbird, horse-power, shoemaker, ringleader, screwdriver, taxpayer, teaspoon, haystack, windmill.
 
(2) Adjective + Noun; as,
Sweetheart, nobleman, shorthand, blackboard, quicksilver, stronghold, halfpenny.
 
(3) Verb + Noun; as,
Spendthrift, makeshift, breakfast, telltale, pickpocket, cut-throat, cutpurse, daredevil,
scarecrow, hangman.
 
(4) Gerund + Noun; as,
Drawing-room, writing-desk, looking-glass, walking-stick, blotting paper, stepping-stone,
spelling-book.
 
(5) Adverb (or Preposition) + Noun ; as,
Outlaw, afterthought, forethought, foresight, overcoat, downfall, afternoon, bypath,
inmate, off-shoot, inside.
 
(6) Verb + Adverb ; as,
Drawback, lock-up, go-between, die-hard, send-off.
 
(7) Adverb + Verb ; as,
Outset, upkeep, outcry, income, outcome.
 
Compound Adjectives may be formed from :-
 
 (1) Noun+Adjective (or Participle); as,
Blood-red, sky-blue, snow-white, pitch-dark, breast-high, skin-deep, purse-proud,
lifelong, world-wide, headstrong, homesick, stone-blind, seasick, note-worthy, heartrending,
ear-piercing, time-serving, moth-eaten, heartbroken, bed-ridden, hand-made,
sea-girl, love-lorn.
 
(2) Adjective + Adjective; as,
Red-hot, blue-black, white-hot, dull-grey, lukewarm
 
(3) Adverb + Participle; as,
Long-suffering, everlasting, never-ending, thorough-bred, well-deserved, outspoken,
down-hearted, far-seen, inborn.
 
Compound Verbs may be formed from:-
 
(1) Noun+Verb; as,
Waylay, backbite, typewrite, browbeat, earmark.
 
(2) Adjective+Verb; as,
Safeguard, whitewash, fulfil.
 
(3) Adverb+Verb; as,
Overthrow, overtake, foretell, undertake, undergo, overhear, overdo, outbid, outdo, upset, ill-use.
 
Note:- In most compound words it is the first word which modifies the meaning of the
second. When the two elements of the compound are only partially blended, a hyphen
is put between them.

(II) PRIMARY DERIVATIVES
 
(1) Formation of Nouns from Verbs and Adjectives.
 
Verbs -- Nouns
Advise -- advice
Bind -- bond
Bless -- bliss
Break -- breach
Choose -- choice
Dig -- ditch, dike
Float -- fleet
Gape -- gap
Grieve -- grief
Live -- life
Lose -- loss
Prove -- proof
Sing -- song
Adjectives -- Nouns
Dull -- dolt
Hot -- heat
Proud – pride
 
(2) Formation of Adjectives from Verbs and Nouns
Verbs -- Adjectives
Float -- fleet
Lie -- low
Nouns -- Adjectives
Milk -- Milch
Wit – wise
 
(3) Formation of Verbs from Nouns and Adjectives
Nouns -- Verbs
Bath -- bathe
Belief -- Believe
Breath -- breathe
Drop -- drip
Food -- feed
Knot -- knit
Sale -- sell
Tale – tell

(Ill) SECONDARY DERIVATIVES
 
English Prefixes
 
A-, on, in;  abed, aboard, ashore, ajar, asleep.
 
A-, out, from, arise, awake, alight.
 
Be-, by (sometimes intensive);
 beside, betimes, besmear, bedaub.
 
For-, thoroughly ;  forbear, forgive.
 
Fore-, before ;  forecast, foretell.
  
In-, in ;  income, inland, inlay.
 
Mis-, wrong, wrongly ; misdeed, mislead, misjudge.
 
Over-, above, beyond ; overflow, overcharge.
 
To-, this;  to-day, to-night, to-morrow.
 
Un-, not; untrue, unkind, unholy.
 
Un-, to reverse an action ; untie, undo, unfold.
 
Under-, beneath, below ;  undersell, undercharge, undergo, under ground.
 
With-, against, back ;  withdraw, withhold, withstand.

Latin Prefixes

Ab, (a, abs), from, away ;  abuse, avert, abstract.
 
Ad (ac, af, ag, al, an, ap, ar, as, at, a), to;   adjoin, accord, affect, aggrieve, allege, announce, appoint, arrest, assign, attach, avail.
 
Ambi (amb, am), on both sides, around;  ambiguous, ambition, amputate.
 
Ante (anti, an), before;  antedate, anticipate, ancestor.
 
Bene, well;benediction, benefit.
 
Bis, (bi, bin), twice, two;  biscuit, bisect, binocular.
 
Circum (circu), around ;  circumnavigate, circumference, circuit.
 
Con (col, com, cor) with, together; contend, collect, combine, correct.
 
Contra (counter), against; contradict, counteract, counterfeit.
 
De, down; descend, dethrone, depose.
 
Dis, (dif, di), apart; disjoin, differ, divide.
 
Demi, half ;  demigod.
 
Ex (ef, e), out of; extract, effect, educe.
 
Extra, beyond, outside, of; extraordinary, extravagant.
 
In (il, im, ir, en, em), in, into;  invade, illustrate, immerse, irrigate, enact, embrace.
 
In (il, im, ir), not; insecure, illegal, imprudent, irregular.
 
Inter (intro, enter), among, within; intervene, introduce, entertain.
 
Male (mal), ill, badly ; malevolent, malcontent.
 
Non, not; nonsense.
 
Ob (oc, of), the way of, against; object, occupy, offend.
 
Pen, almost;  penultimate, peninsula.
 
Per (pel), through ; pervade, pellucid.
 
Post, after ; postscript, postdate, postpone.
 
Pre, before ;  prefix, prevent, predict.
 
Preter, beyond ; preternatural.
 
Pro (por, pur), for; pronoun, portray, pursue.
 
Re, back, again ; reclaim, refund, renew, return.
 
Retro, backwards ; retrospect, retrograde.
 
Se (sed) ; apart; secede, separate, seduce, sedition.
 
Semi, half; semicircle, semicolon.
 
Sine, without; sinecure.
 
Sub (sue, suf, sug, sum, sup, sur, sus), under; subdue, succeed, suffer, suggest, summon, support, surmount, sustain.
 
Subter, beneath ; subterfuge.
 
Super, above ; superfine, superfluous.
 
Trans, (tra, tres), across ; transmit, traverse, trespass.
 
Vice, in the place of;  viceroy, vice-president.
 
Greek Prefixes

A (an), without, not; atheist, apathy, anarchy.
 
Amphi, around, on both sides;  amphitheatre, amphibious.
 
Ana, up, back; anachronism, analysis.
 
Anti (ant), against; antipathy, antagonist.
 
Apo (ap) from;  apostate, apology.
 
Arch (archi) chief; archbishop, archangel, architect.
 
Auto, self; autocrat, autobiography, autograph.
 
Cata, down;  cataract, catastrophe, catalogue.
 
Di, twice;  dilemma.
 
Dia, through;  diagonal, diameter.
 
Dys, badly;  dyspepsia, dysentery.
 
En (em), in,;  encyclopaedia, emblem.
 
Epi, upon;  epilogue, epitaph.
 
Eu, well; eulogy, euphony, eugenics.
 
Ex (ec), out of; exodus, eccentric.
 
Hemi, half;  hemisphere.
 
Homo (hom), like ;  homogeneous, homonym.
 
Hyper, over, beyond ;  hyperbole, hypercritical.

Hypo, under ; hypothesis, hypocrite.
 
Meta (met), implying change ;  metaphor, metonymy.
 
Mono, alone, single ; monoplane, monopoly.
 
Pan, all; panacea, panorama, pantheism.
 
Para, beside, by the side of;  parallel, paradox, parasite.
 
Peri, round ; period, perimeter, periscope.
 
Philo (Phil),love; philosophy, philanthropy.
 
Pro, before; prophesy, programme.
 
Syn, (sym, syl, sy),with, together; synonym, sympathy, syllable, system.
 
English Suffixes
 
OF NOUNS
 
(1) Denoting agent or doer
 
-- er (-ar, -or, -yer); painter, baker, beggar, sailor, lawyer.
-- ster ; spinster, punster, songster.
-- ter (-ther) ; daughter, father.
 
(2) Denoting state, action, condition, being, etc.
 
-- dom ; freedom, martyrdom, wisdom.
-- hood (-head); manhood, childhood, godhead.
-- lock (-ledge); wedlock, knowledge.
-- ness ; darkness, boldness, goodness, sweetness.
-- red ; kindred, hatred.
-- ship ; hardship, friendship, lordship.
-- th : health, stealth, arnwth.
 
 (3) Forming Diminutives (very small).
 
-- el (-le) ; satchel, kernel, girdle, handle.
-- en ; maiden, kitten, chicken.
-- ie ; dearie, birdie, lassie.
-- kin ; lambkin, napkin.
-- let; leaflet.
-- ling ; duckling, darling, stripling, weakling.
-- ock ; hillock, bullock.
 
OF ADJECTIVES
 
-- ed, having ;  gifted, talented, wretched, learned.
 
-- en, made of; wooden, golden, woollen, earthen.
 
-- fid, full of;  hopeful, fruitful, joyful.
 
-- ish, somewhat like ;  boorish, reddish, girlish.
 
-- Jess, free from, without;  fearless, shameless, hopeless, senseless, boundless.
 
-- ly, like ;  manly, godly, sprightly.
 
-- some, with the quality of;  wholesome, meddlesome, gladsome, quarrelsome.
 
-- ward, inclining to ; forward, wayward.
 
-- y, with the quality of; wealthy, healthy, windy, slimy, greedy, needy, thirsty, dirty.
 
OF VERBS

-- en, causative, forming transitive verbs;
weaken, sweeten, gladden, deaden, strengthen.
 
-- se, to make ; cleanse, rinse.
 
-- er, intensive or frequentative: chatter, glitter, glimmer, fritter, flutter.
 
OF ADVERBS
-- ly, like ;  boldly, wisely.
 
-- long,  headlong, sidelong.
 
-- ward, (-wards), turning to;  homeward, backwards, upwards.
 
-- way, (-ways); straightway, anyway, always.
 
-- wise, manner, mode ;  likewise, otherwise.

Latin Suffixes OF NOUNS

(1) Denoting chiefly the agent or doer of a thing.
 
-- ain (-an, -en, -on) ; chieftain, artisan, citizen, surgeon.
-- air, (-er, -eer, -ier, -ary ); scholar, preacher, engineer, financier, missionary.
-- ate (-ee, -ey, -y) ; advocate, trustee, attorney, deputy.
-- or, (-our, -eur, -er); emperor, saviour, amateur, inteipreter.
 
(2) Denoting state, action, result of an action.
 
-- age; bondage, marriage, breakage, leakage.
-- ance (-ence); abundance, brilliance, assistance, excellence, innocence.
-- cy; fancy, accuracy, lunacy, bankruptcy.
-- ion; action, opinion, union.
-- ice (-ise) ; service, cowardice, exercise.
-- ent ; punishment, judgement, improvement.
-- mony ; parsimony, matrimony, testimony.
-- tude ; servitude, fortitude, magnitude.
-- ty ; cruelty, frailty, credulity.
-- ure ; pleasure, forfeiture, verdure.
-- y ; misery, victory.
 
(3) Forming diminutives.
 
-- cule (-ule, -eel, -sel, -el, -le); animalcule, globule, parcel, damsel, chapel, circle.
-- et; owlet, lancet, trumpet.
-- ette ; cigarette, coquette.
 
(4) Denoting place.
 
-- ary (-ery, -ry); dispensary, library, nunnery, treasury.
-- ter (tre) ; cloister; theatre.
 
OF ADJECTIVES
-- al; national, legal, regal, mortal, fatal.
-- an (-ane) ; human, humane, mundane.
-- ar; familiar, regular.
-- ary; customary, contrary, necessary, ordinary, honorary.
-- ate; fortune, temperature, obstinate.
-- ble (-ible, able) ; feeble, sensible, laughable.
-- esque; picturesque, grotesque.
-- id; humid, vivid, lucid.
-- ile; servile, fragile, juvenile.
-- ine; feminine, canine, feline, divine.
-- ive; active, attentive, shortive
-- lent; corpulent, indolent, turbulent, virulent.
-- ose (ous); verbose, dangerous, onerous, copious.
 
OF VERBS
-- ate; assassinate, captivate, exterminate.
-- esce; acquiesce, effervesce.
-- fy; simplify, purify, fortify, sanctify, terrify.
-- ish; publish, nourish, punish, banish.
 
Greek Suffixes
-- ic (-ique); angelic, cynic, phonetic, unique.
-- ist; artist, chemist.
-- isk; asterisk, obelisk.
-- ism (-asm); patriotism, despotism, enthusiasm.
-- ize; civilize, sympathize, criticize.
-- sis (-sy); crisis, analysis, heresy, poesy.
-- e (-y); catastrophe, monarchy, philosophy. '
Note:- We still feel the force of a number of suffixes of foreign, origin. These are :-
ee (French), added to nouns to denote, usually, the person who takes a passive share in an
action; as, employee, payee, legatee, mortgagee, trustee, referee.
or, ar, er, eer, ier, denoting a person who perfoms a certain actor function; as, emperor,
scholar, officer, engineer, gondolier.
ist, denoting a person who follows a certain trade or pursuit; as, chemist, theosophist,
artist, nihilist.
ism, forming abstract nouns; as, patriotism.
ble, forming adjectives that have usually a passive sense; as, tolerable, bearable.
ize orise, forming verbs from nouns and adjectives; as, crystallize, moralize, baptize.



Tuesday, 17th Jan 2017, 02:02:55 AM

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