Factors determining population growth


Ajit Kumar AJIT KUMARWISDOM IAS, New Delhi.

The term population refers to the whole number of people or inhabitants in a country or region
 The basic factors determining population growth are    -

1. Birth rate
2. Death rate
3. Migration
a. Out-migration (Emigration)
b. In-migration (Immigration)

Birth Rate

Birth rate has a positive influence on growth of population. Higher the birth rate, higher will be the growth of population. The birth rate depends on the following factors: i) the age of marriage ii) the rapidity of child birth  iii) social customs and beliefs and iv) Illiteracy and ignorance of controlling births. Early marriage, higher child birth, higher the spread of social customs and beliefs (like son preference to do the religious functions) and higher the rate of illiteracy and ignorance of birth controlling measures, higher will be the birth rate and population growth. Social awareness and spread of education among the people can help to increase the mean age of marriage, increase the knowledge about family planning methods and family welfare measures to control births, reduce the rapidity of child birth and thereby reduce the birth rate.

 Death Rate

Lower the death rate, higher will be the population growth and vice versa. High death rates may be due to hunger, starvation, malnutrition, epidemics, lack of proper medical and sanitary facilities. On the other hand, low death rates may be the result of better diet, pure drinking water, improved hospital facilities, control of epidemics and contagious diseases and better sanitation.

 Migration

Out-migration will reduce population growth while in-migration will increase the population growth. Migration is not an important factor contributing to the population growth due to the restrictions imposed by different countries. Thus, the two major causes for the variations in population are birth rate and death rate.


Thursday, 17th Mar 2016, 01:00:59 PM

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