Demography Related Terms


Ajit Kumar AJIT KUMARWISDOM IAS, New Delhi.



Cohort Analysis Observation of a cohort's demographic behavior through life or through many periods; for example, examining the fertility behavior of the cohort of people born between 1940 and 1945 through their entire childbearing years. Rates derived from such cohort analyses are cohort measures.

Crude Birth Rate:  the number of live births per 1000 of population in a given year.
Crude Death Rate: the number of deaths per 1000 of population in a given year.
Demographic Transition: the historical shift of birth and death rates, from high to low, in a population.  The decline in mortality usually precedes the decline in fertility, leading to natural rates of increase.
Dependency Ratio The ratio of the economically dependent part of the population to the productive part; arbitrarily defined as the ratio of the elderly (ages 65 and older) plus the young (under age 15) to the population in the working ages (ages 15-64).
Emigration Rate The number of emigrants departing an area of origin per 1,000 population in that area of origin in a given year.
Fecundity: the physiological capacity of a woman to bear a child.
Gross Reproduction Rate (GRR) The average number of daughters that would be born alive to a woman (or group of women) during her lifetime if she passed through her childbearing years conforming to the age-specific fertility rates of a given year.
Immigration Rate The number of immigrants arriving at a destination per 1,000 population at that destination in a given year.
Immigration The process of entering one country from another to take up permanent or semipermanent residence.
Incidence Rate: the number of persons contracting a disease during a given time period per 1000 of population at risk.
Infant Mortality Rate:  the number of deaths of infants under age one per 1000 live births in a given year.  Widely considered as a leading indicator of the levels of economic development of a country.
Life Expectancy: the average number of additional years a person could expect to live if current mortality trends were to continue for the rest of the person’s life.  (Most common is life expectancy at birth.)
Maternal Mortality Ratio: the number of women who die as a result of complications of pregnancy or childbearing in a given year, per 100,000 live births in that year.
Morbidity: the frequency of disease, illness, injuries, or disabilities in a population.
Net Reproduction Rate (NRR) The average number of daughters that would be born to a woman (or a group of women) if she passed through her lifetime conforming to the age-specific fertility and mortality rates of a given year. This rate is similar to the gross reproduction rate but takes into account that some women will die before completing their childbearing years. An NRR of one means that each generation of mothers is having exactly enough daughters to replace itself in the population.
Population Explosion (or "Population Bomb") Expressions used to describe the 20th century worldwide trend of rapid population growth, resulting from a world birth rate much higher than the world death rate.
Population Growth Rate:  the rate at which a population is increasing (or decreasing) in a given year due to natural increase and net migration, expressed as a percentage of the base population.
Population Pyramid: graphic representation of the age and gender distribution of a population.
Prevalence Rate: the number of persons who have a particular disease at a given point in time, or time period, per 1000 of population.
Replacement Level Fertility: the level of fertility at which a couple has only enough children to replace themselves, or just over two children per couple.
Total Fertility Rate: the average number of children that would be born alive to a woman in her lifetime if she were to pass through her childbearing years conforming to the age-specific fertility rates of a given year.
Zero population growth: A population in equilibrium, with a growth rate of zero, achieved when births plus immigration equal deaths plus emigration. 



Thursday, 29th Jun 2017, 06:05:30 AM

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