Adjectives – Rules


Ajit Kumar AJIT KUMARWISDOM IAS, New Delhi.

Rule 1: Some adjectives cannot be compared
 
Adjectives expressing qualities that do not admit of different degrees cannot be compared, i.e. perfect, eternal, square, infinite, universal, unique, complete, round, pregnant, etc.
Our field is more square than theirs. (There cannot be more or less square so question of comparison do not arise.)
 
Rule 2:. In comparing two things or persons the comparatives should be used.(not superlative)
Of the two boys, Ram’s brain is the sharpest.(wrong)
Of the two boys, Ram’s brain is sharper.(Right)
 
Rule 3: When we compare two qualities in the same person/thing  the comparative ‘er’ is not used.
i.e. Ravi is wiser than strong.(It means wisdom of Ravi is greater than his strength).
In this situation we say-
Ravi is more wise than strong.
 
Rule 4: When two objects are compared  with each other, the latter term of comparison must exclude the former
i.e. Ramesh is brighter than any student in his class. (This includes Ramesh)
We should say –
Ramesh is brighter than any other student in his class.
 
Rule 5: The comparative degree is generally followed by ‘than’ but some comparative adjectives are followed by the preposition ‘to’. They are inferior, superior, anterior, posterior, senior, junior,  etc.
In job hierarchy Raman is senior than Karan.(wrong)
In job hierarchy Raman is senior to Karan.(write)
 
Rule 6: In a comparison by means of a superlative, the latter term should include the former.
i.e. The USA is the most powerful of all other democracies.(wrong)
The USA is the most powerful of all democracies.(right)
 
Rule7: When we compare two things, similar things should be compared.
i.e. The orientation of Jan Dhan Yojana is better than other financial inclusion schemes.(The sentence is wrong because ‘orientation’ is being compared not the schemes.).
We should say – The orientation of Jan Dhan Yojana is better than that of other financial inclusion schemes.
 
Rule 8: Double comparatives or superlatives should be avoided.
'He is much more better than me'.  Wrong)
He is much better than me'.(Right)

That is the most slowest car. (Wrong)
That is the slowest car. (Right)


Rule 9: ‘Preferable’ has a force of comparison, and is followed by ‘to’.
Staying indoor is more preferable than going out during rainy days. (Wrong)
Staying indoor is preferable to going out during rainy days. (Right)
 
Rule 10 : ‘Latter’ is used when two persons or things are compared. For more than two persons or things ‘last’ is used.
i.e. Of Riya, Madhu and Apoorva , the latter is a brilliant girl. (Wrong)
Of Riya, Madhu and Apoorva , the last is a brilliant girl.
Rule:If there is gradual increase it is generally expressed with two comparatives and not with two positives.
i.e. Water level grew high and high. (Wrong)
Water level grew higher and higher. (Right)
 
Rule 11. Use of 'few', 'a few', and 'the few' :
 
The use of 'few', 'a few', and 'the few' should be used with care. They denote 'number'. 'Few' means 'not many'. It is the opposite of many. A 'few' is positive and means 'some at least'. It is the opposite of none. 'The few' means 'whatever there is'.

Examples:
(a) Few men are perfect in their works.
(b) A few boys are present in the class.
(c) I have already seen the few movies that I have in my laptop.
 
Rule 12. Use of ‘less' and 'fewer':
 
'Less' denotes quantity and 'fewer' denotes number.
Examples:
(a) No fewer than twenty girls went for the picnic last weekend.
(b) There are no less than six liters of water in that pitcher.
 
Rule 13. Use of little, a little, the little:
 
'Little' means 'hardly any'.
Examples:
(a) There is little hope of his coming back.
(b) A little knowledge is good for nothing.
(c) The little milk that is left in the container may be used for making tea.
 
Rule 14. Use of elder, older:
'Older' refers to persons as well as things and is followed by 'than'. 
Examples:
(a) Sita is five year older that Gita.
(b) Sita is the elder sister of Gita.
 
Rule 15. Use of ‘than’:
 
Generally 'than' is used in the comparative degree, but with words like superior, inferior, senior, junior, prior, prefer 'to' is used.
Examples:
(a) Mita is senior to Mohini.
(b) After having dinner, I prefer walking to sleeping.
 
Rule 16. In some cases, the comparison must be given proper attention.
Examples:
(a) The climate of Mumbai is better than the climate of Delhi.
Or
(a) The climate of Mumbai is better that that of Delhi.
(b) The summer in Delhi is hotter than that of Mumbai.
 
 



Friday, 03rd Feb 2017, 12:53:20 PM

Add Your Comment:
Post Comment